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English Reviewer

English Reviewer

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Published by Shinji

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Published by: Shinji on Aug 05, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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Lecture # 1
What is Business English or English for Business?
Why has the English language played a large part of a significant role in the world business today?Read the excerpt then answer these questions:
What have NICs done in the world of business?
Do you think that what NICs have done in the world of business is logical, reasonable and practical?
Which of these countries fare well in the business world—Singapore or the French-speaking Africancountries? Explain why.
English: The Global Language(The Story of English, by Robert Mccrum et. al. 1992)
 The richest vocabulary
 The most widespread mother tongue.
 The most widespread second language.
 The official international language of the Third World.
 The language of communication and telecommunication.
 The language of Science and Computers.
English: The Global Language(The Story of English, by Robert Mccrum et. al. 1992)
 The language of the world.
 The language of the airwaves.
 The preferred language of Europe.
 The official language of Europe.
 The Need for Business English
English has contributed much in the world’s production, trade and communication.
D. Whitehead and G. Whitehead commented, “in life, economics is king, and everything else—literature,music, art and even education—is only made possible by the business activity in the economic life of theworld.”
 The relevance of Business English as a subject should not be ignored. We all see the need to use English inbusiness situations—whether in everyday business life or during our employment.
 The Subject Areas of Business English
Business English, the language of the international business world is simply ordinary English relatedparticularly to business use.
Business English is not theoretical but a practical one at that. You need to learn to speak lucidly andconvincingly in everyday business conversation in the workplace, over the telephone, or in many otherdifferent business situations—in the public address system, television camera, conferences, meetings, etc.
Components of Business Communication(Refer to the diagram)
 The Basic Forms of Organizational CommunicationDirections: Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence’s thoughts and ideas. ______ communication is the process of communicating without words. The mostbasic of communication, it consists of gestures, _____ expressions, spatialrelationships and attitudes. From primitive times tothe present modern time, we have used nonverbalcommunication to express different emotions likelove, anger, dislike and other feelings. There are limits to what we cancommunicate without the use of words so we alsouse the other form of communication--_____ thatconsists of words arranged in meaningful patterns.We arrange words according to the rules of  _____ in order to create thoughts. We transmit messagesin spoken or ______ form as we anticipate that someonewill either hear or read what is said or stated.
Business Organizational Communication
Business people manifest preference to oral communication channels than the written ones. For sharinginformation on a daily basis, business people rely more heavily on oral than written communication.
Communication is said to be the “glue” that binds the organization together. Without communication, theorganization will not just grow but will surely perish. It is very vital that the members of any specificorganization transmit the right information to the right people at the right time.
Business Organizational Communication
For the success and maintenance of an organization, organizational communications take place throughexternal and internal communication channels, which may move either downward or upward.
Features or Organizational Communication
DOWNWARD INFORMATION FLOWNONVERBAL COMMUNICATIONIntroduction in Non-verbal CommunicationCommunication in general is process of sending and receiving messages that enables humans to share knowledge,attitudes, and skills. Although we usually identify communication with speech, communication is composed of twodimensions - verbal and nonverbal.Non-verbal CommunicationNonverbal communication has been defined as communication without words. It includes apparent behaviors suchas facial expressions, eyes, touching, and tone of voice, as well as less obvious messages such as dress, posture andspatial distance between two or more people.nonverbal communication is learned shortly after birth and practiced and refined throughout a person’s lifetime.Children first learn nonverbal expressions by watching and imitating, much as they learn verbal skills. Young children know far more than they can verbalize and are generally more adept at reading nonverbal cues thanadults are because of their limited verbal skills and their recent reliance on the nonverbal to communicate. Aschildren develop verbal skills, nonverbal channels of communication do not cease to exist although becomeentwined in the total communication process.
Humans use nonverbal communication because:
Words have limitations: There are numerous areas where nonverbal communication is more effective than verbal(when explain the shape, directions, personalities are expressed nonverbally)Nonverbal signal are powerful: Nonverbal cues primary express inner feelings (verbal messages deal basically withoutside world).Nonverbal message are likely to be more genuine: because nonverbal behaviors cannot be controlled as easily asspoken words.Nonverbal signals can express feelings inappropriate to state: Social etiquette limits what can be said, but nonverbalcues can communicate thoughts.A separate communication channel is necessary to help send complex messages: A speaker can add enormously tothe complexity of the verbal message through simple nonverbal signals.
Nonverbal communication in classroom
Nonverbal communication is also a critical aspect of interpersonal communication in the classroom. The mostcredible messages teachers generate, as communication sources are nonverbal.Many of the cues students use to make judgments about teacher’s competence or characters are obtained byobserving the teacher’s nonverbal behavior.
Nonverbal communication in classroom
Nonverbal communication in the classroom occurs with distance, physical environment, facial expression, vocalcues, body movements and gestures, touch, time, physical attractiveness, and dress.BODY MOVEMENTS, GESTURES AND POSTURESMovements and gestures by the hands, arms, legs, and other parts of the body and face are the most pervasivetypes of nonverbal messages and the most difficult to control. It is estimated that there are over 200.000 physicalsigns capable of stimulating meaning in another person (some social scientists state even 700.000). For example,there are 23 distinct eyebrow movements, each capable of stimulating a different meaning.BODY MOVEMENTS, GESTURES AND POSTURESHumans express attitudes toward themselves and vividly through body motions and posture. Bodies movementselucidate true messages about feeling that cannot be masked. Because such avenues of communication are visual,they travel much farther than spoken words and are unaffected by the presence of noise that interrupt, or cancelsout speech.People communicate by the way they walk, stand, and sit. We tend to be more relaxed with friends or whenaddressing those of lower status.Body orientation also indicates status or liking of the other individual. More direct orientation is related to a morepositive attitude.BODY MOVEMENTS, GESTURES AND POSTURESBody movements and postures alone have no exact meaning, but they can greatly support or reject the spokenword. It these two means of communication are dichotomized and contradict each other, some result will be adisordered image and most often the nonverbal will dominate.
Body movement and gesture in the classroom
 Body postures and movements are frequently indicators of self-confidence, energy, fatigue, or status. In theclassroom, students keen to receive body message of enthusiasm or boredom about the subject matter being taughtcan sense confidence or frustration from the unconscious behaviors of teachers.Gesturesgestures operate to clarify, contradict, or replace verbal messages. Gestures also serve an important function withregard to regulating the flow of conversation.Gestures
For example, if a student is talking in class, single nods of the head from the teacher will likely cause that student tocontinue and perhaps elaborate.A sample gesturePostureused to indicate attitudes, status, affective moods, approval, deception, warmth, and other variables related toclassroom interaction.conveys gross or overall affect (liking), while specific emotions are communicated by more discreet, facial and bodymovements. (Ekman and Friesen)Facial Expression The saying “A picture is worth a thousand words” well describes the meaning of facial expression. Facial appearance- including wrinkles, muscle tone, skin coloration, and eye color-offers enduring cues that reveal information aboutage, sex, race, ethnic origin, and status.
Varieties of expressionsFace talks
Facial Expressionmay be unintentional or intentional.can also be voluntary, as when an individual wants deliberately to hide feelings for different reasonsOften people try to hide feelings and emotions behind masks.All humans are capable of faking a happy or a sad face, a smile or a frown.Facial Expression
Facial expression in the classroom
 All people and thus certainly teachers and students use facial expressions to form impressions of another.Facial expression involves some of the smallest body movements, but its impact in the classroom may be greaterthan any other body language the teacher exhibits. The teacher probably communicates more accidentally by his orher facial expression than by any other means.When teachers are responding to students, these changes in facial expression can serve as reinforcers to thestudent or as non-reinforcers.
 the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone, pitch and accent,collectively known asprosody, can all give off nonverbal cues.may change the meaning of words The linguistGeorge L. Tragerdeveloped a classification system which consists of the
voice set, voice qualities, and vocalization
. The
voice set 
is the context in which the speaker is speaking. This can include the situation, gender, mood, age anda person's culture. The
voice qualities
rhythm, articulation, resonance, nasality, and accent 
. They give eachindividual a unique "voice print".
consists of three subsections:
characterizers, qualifiers and segregates
. Characterizers are emotionsexpressed while speaking, such as laughing, crying, and yawning. A voice qualifier is the style of delivering amessage - for example, yelling "Hey stop that!", as opposed to whispering "Hey stop that". Vocal segregates such as"uh-huh" notify the speaker that the listener is listening.
Functions of nonverbal communication
 Five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication:Express emotionsExpress interpersonal attitudes To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listenersSelf-presentation of one’s personalityRituals (greetings)
Interaction of verbal and nonverbal communication
When communicating, nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways:
repeating, conflicting,complementing, substituting, regulating and accenting/moderating
"Repeating" consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message, such as pointing to the object of discussion
ConflictingVerbal and nonverbal messages within the same interaction can sometimes send opposing orconflicting messages. A person verbally expressing a statement of truth while simultaneously fidgetingor avoiding eye contact may convey a mixed message to the receiver in the interaction. Conflictingmessages may occur for a variety of reasons often stemming from feelings of uncertainty, ambivalence,or frustration. When mixed messages occur, nonverbal communication becomes the primary toolpeople use to attain additional information to clarify the situation; great attention is placed on bodilymovements and positioning when people perceive mixed messages during interactions.Complementing
 Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication complement eachother. Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce the information sent when trying toachieve communicative goals; messages have been shown to be remembered better when nonverbal signals affirmthe verbal exchange

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