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Tropical Coasts Vol. 7 No. 2: A Challenging Journey: Coastal and Marine Policy Making in East Asia

Tropical Coasts Vol. 7 No. 2: A Challenging Journey: Coastal and Marine Policy Making in East Asia

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This issue is about new approaches in policies related to our marine environment. The focus is primarily on national efforts towards developing coastal, marine and ocean policies in the East Asian Seas region through an examination of recently enacted policies or efforts to develop them. As may be gathered from the articles, there are no clearly agreed upon
definitions of what exactly a national "coastal," "marine," or "ocean" policy is. Despite semantic differences, the key is that these policies represent new integrative approaches towards the marine environment. They identify the major issues that need to be addressed and establish a process for treating them in an integrated, inter-sectoral, and interagency
manner in order to promote sustainable development of the coastal and marine areas.
This issue is about new approaches in policies related to our marine environment. The focus is primarily on national efforts towards developing coastal, marine and ocean policies in the East Asian Seas region through an examination of recently enacted policies or efforts to develop them. As may be gathered from the articles, there are no clearly agreed upon
definitions of what exactly a national "coastal," "marine," or "ocean" policy is. Despite semantic differences, the key is that these policies represent new integrative approaches towards the marine environment. They identify the major issues that need to be addressed and establish a process for treating them in an integrated, inter-sectoral, and interagency
manner in order to promote sustainable development of the coastal and marine areas.

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08/21/2013

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T r o p i c a l C o a s t s2
c o n c e r n s a n d a n a l y s e s
   E   D    I   T   O    R    I   A    L   E   D    I   T   O    R    I   A    L   E   D    I   T   O    R    I   A    L   E   D    I   T   O    R    I   A    L   E   D    I   T   O    R    I   A    L
 Ari Nathan
Developing NationalDeveloping NationalDeveloping NationalDeveloping NationalDeveloping NationalCoastal, Marine andCoastal, Marine andCoastal, Marine andCoastal, Marine andCoastal, Marine andOcean POcean POcean POcean POcean Policiesoliciesoliciesoliciesolicies
T
his issue of Tropical Coasts is about new approaches inpolicies related to our marine environment. The focus isprimarily on national efforts towards developing coastal,marine and ocean policies in the East Asian Seas region through anexamination of recently enacted policies or efforts to develop them. Asmay be gathered from the articles, there are no clearly agreed upondefinitions of what exactly a national "coastal," "marine," or "ocean"policy is. Despite semantic differences, the key is that these policiesrepresent new integrative approaches towards the marine environment.They identify the major issues that need to be addressed and establisha process for treating them in an integrated, inter-sectoral, and inter-agency manner in order to promote sustainable development of thecoastal and marine areas.We begin this issue with an article outlining a new approach notto the policy of any specific country in the region but to a highlycontentious issue involving many countries in the region competingclaims in the South China Sea. The article suggests that jurisdictionaldisputes should not prevent countries from cooperatively workingtogether. Cooperation should be based on recognition of the physicalnature of a shared sea and its resources. Such an approach would becompatible with the Law of the Sea's encouragement to take practicalmeasures pending the resolution of disputes and "without prejudice" tocountries' positions on sovereignty and jurisdiction.We then turn to consider the specific policies of two countries in theregion that have enacted integrative laws on the marine environment: theRepublic of Korea and the People's Republic of China. The articles examine theprocess that each country went through to develop its laws and the substantivereasons why they were needed.Promulgated in 1999 to help preserve the coastal environment, ensuresustainable development and integrate ecological, cultural and economicinterests in the coast, the Korean Coastal Management Act is the product of aprocess that took close to 15 years. The variety of activities precedingpromulgation of the Act emphasizes the complexity of developing nationalcoastal policy and suggests that it requires multidisciplinary input from academeand other experts, a favorable political environment and concerned public, anda government willing to consider new paradigms in environmental managementsuch as that the coastal zone includes both land and sea components.The year 1999 also saw the amendment of China's Marine EnvironmentalProtection Law which is designed to protect the marine environment, conservemarine resources, control pollution, and promote sustainable economic andpolitical development. The amendment ensures that the law has a strongecosystem perspective, is compatible with international conventions, harmonizeslegislation and the role of different government agencies involved in themarine environment, and includes appropriate penalties.Not all countries in the region have developed such policies. Efforts in thePhilippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Japan, are examined to help explain theconstraints faced in developing integrated policies at a national level.Although the Philippines has had a national marine policy for over sixyears, governance of the country's marine resources and activities has remainedfragmented and uncoordinated because the policy was too nebulous to provideeffective guidance to governance and resolve conflict among marine environmentusers. In response to this, the government, academe, non-governmentalorganizations and affected sectors have begun a process to "overhaul" theexisting policy.Malaysia has fourteen ministries and twenty-seven departmentsresponsible for sea and coastal zone management. This creates difficulties ineffectively dealing with cross-sectoral and multiple-use conflicts. Recognizingthe importance of coastal management, a national plan outlined the need forprinciples to resolve conflicting interests in the coastal zone, ensure resourcesustainability, and reconcile the functions of responsible agencies. As a follow-up, the government is currently conducting an exercise to formulate a NationalCoastal Zone Policy for Malaysia.In Indonesia, a new Department of Marine Affairs and Fisheries is nowresponsible for identifying core coastal and ocean management issues anddevising an appropriate organizational structure to deal with such issues. Thisfocus on coastal and ocean management suggests a departure from Indonesia'sformer emphasis, which was focused on jurisdictional issues and land-orienteddevelopment. The new approach is based on a growing recognition of theeconomic potential of Indonesia's marine resources and the seriousenvironmental problems they face.
Issue Editor
continued on page 31
 
3
The Global Environment Facility/UnitedNations Development Programme/Inter-national Maritime Organization - Re-gional Programme on Partnerships in En-vironmental Management for the Seas ofEast Asia (GEF/UNDP/IMO PEMSEA),Sida Marine Science Programme, and theCoastal Management Center (CMC) pub-lishes Tropical Coasts Magazine biannu-ally. This publication is geared towardsstimulating an exchange of informationand sharing of experiences and ideas withrespect to environmental protection andthe management of coastal and marineareas. Readers are strongly encouraged tosend their contributions to:
Executive Editor
P.O. Box 2502,Quezon City 1165,Metro Manila, Philippines
The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflectthe views or policies of the Global Environment Facility(GEF), the United Nations Development Programme(UNDP), the International Maritime Organization (IMO),the Regional Programme on Partnerships in Environ-mental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA),Sida Marine Science Program, Coastal ManagementCenter (CMC), other participating organizations, or theeditors, nor are they an official record. The designationemployed and the presentation do not imply the ex-pression of opinion whatsoever on the part of GEF, UNDP,IMO, PEMSEA, Sida Marine Science Program or CMCconcerning the legal status of any country, territory orcity or its authority, or concerning the delimitation of itsterritory or boundaries.
i n t h i s i s s u e
12121212122424242424323232323244444444445252525252
Editorial
22222
PEMSEA Publications
7676767676
PEMSEA News
7171717171
Facts and Figures
8080808080
Capacity Building
7474747474
s p e c i a l f e a t u r e
The Bohai Sea Declaration:The Bohai Sea Declaration:The Bohai Sea Declaration:The Bohai Sea Declaration:The Bohai Sea Declaration:PPPPPolicy at Wolicy at Wolicy at Wolicy at Wolicy at Wororororor
4040404040
d e p a r t m e n t s
December 2 0 0 0
Tropical Coasts
 www.pemsea.org/tropicalcoasts
A ChallengingJourney
Coastal and marinepolicy making in EastAsia can go both ways-coordinated orfragmented, concreteor nebulous,cooperative orconfrontational.
Chua Thia-Eng
Executive Editor
Olof Linden andEdgardo D. Gomez
Editors
 Ari Nathan
Issue Editor
Jude William Genilo
Managing Editor
Leo Rex Cayaban
Editorial Assistant
Jonel Dulay Emmanuel IslaCasey Villarosa
Design/Illustration/DTP
Ian Townsend-GaultJihyun Lee Yongke Jiao, ChulinRuan and Huming YuJay L. BatongbacalMohd Nizam bin BasironEtty R. AgoesGeoff WescottHiroyuki Nakahara
Contributors
on the cover
V o l u m e 7 N o . 2 December 2 0 0 0
The New Marine Environmental ProtectionThe New Marine Environmental ProtectionThe New Marine Environmental ProtectionThe New Marine Environmental ProtectionThe New Marine Environmental ProtectionLaw of the People’s Republic of ChinaLaw of the People’s Republic of ChinaLaw of the People’s Republic of ChinaLaw of the People’s Republic of ChinaLaw of the People’s Republic of China
 Yongke Jiao, Chunlin Ruan and Huming Yu
The Development of a Coastal Zone Man-The Development of a Coastal Zone Man-The Development of a Coastal Zone Man-The Development of a Coastal Zone Man-The Development of a Coastal Zone Man-agement Policy for Malaysiaagement Policy for Malaysiaagement Policy for Malaysiaagement Policy for Malaysiaagement Policy for Malaysia
Mohd Nizam bin Basiron
Re-Inventing the National Marine Policy ofRe-Inventing the National Marine Policy ofRe-Inventing the National Marine Policy ofRe-Inventing the National Marine Policy ofRe-Inventing the National Marine Policy ofthe Philippinesthe Philippinesthe Philippinesthe Philippinesthe Philippines
Jay L. Batongbacal
 A Cooperative Approach to the A Cooperative Approach to the A Cooperative Approach to the A Cooperative Approach to the A Cooperative Approach to theSouth China SeaSouth China SeaSouth China SeaSouth China SeaSouth China Sea
Ian Townsend-Gault
Indonesia’s Approach to Coastal and OceanIndonesia’s Approach to Coastal and OceanIndonesia’s Approach to Coastal and OceanIndonesia’s Approach to Coastal and OceanIndonesia’s Approach to Coastal and OceanManagement within the Department ofManagement within the Department ofManagement within the Department ofManagement within the Department ofManagement within the Department ofMarine Affairs and FisheriesMarine Affairs and FisheriesMarine Affairs and FisheriesMarine Affairs and FisheriesMarine Affairs and Fisheries
Etty R. Agoes
Evolution of National Coastal Policy in KoreaEvolution of National Coastal Policy in KoreaEvolution of National Coastal Policy in KoreaEvolution of National Coastal Policy in KoreaEvolution of National Coastal Policy in Korea
Jihyun Lee
The Development and Implementation ofThe Development and Implementation ofThe Development and Implementation ofThe Development and Implementation ofThe Development and Implementation of Australia’s Oceans Policy Australia’s Oceans Policy Australia’s Oceans Policy Australia’s Oceans Policy Australia’s Oceans Policy
Geoff Wescott
Japan’s Coastal and Ocean Policy in theJapan’s Coastal and Ocean Policy in theJapan’s Coastal and Ocean Policy in theJapan’s Coastal and Ocean Policy in theJapan’s Coastal and Ocean Policy in theBeginning of the 21st CenturyBeginning of the 21st CenturyBeginning of the 21st CenturyBeginning of the 21st CenturyBeginning of the 21st Century
Hiroyuki Nakahara
58585858586666666666
Recognizing the adverse effects of environmentaldegradation, the Bohai Sea Declaration wasformulated to outline guiding principles for theprotection and preservation of the sea’sresources and environment.
44444

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