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MIT Radiaton Lab Series, V6, Microwave Magnetrons

MIT Radiaton Lab Series, V6, Microwave Magnetrons

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Published by Kevin Haworth
MIT Radiation Laboratory Series, Microwave Magnetrons - Volume 6, 1947
MIT Radiation Laboratory Series, Microwave Magnetrons - Volume 6, 1947

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Kevin Haworth on Aug 06, 2010
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11/26/2012

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CHAPTER1INTRODUCTIONGEORGEB.COLLINSAmagnetronisadiode,usuallycylindrical,withamagneticfieldparalleltoitsaxis.Inmodernusage,ho~vever,thewordimpliesadiodethat,withtheaidofamagneticfield,producesshortelectromagneticwaves,anditiswiththismeaningthatthetermisusedinthisvolume.Thosemagnetronswhichproduceradiationwithinthewavelengthrange1to30cmareheredefinedasmicrowavemagnetrons.Thisclassoftubesissometimescalledcavitymagnetronsfromthefactthat,intheusualdesign,theresonantcircuitisanumberofcloselycoupledcavitiescontainedwithintheevacuatedportionofthetube.101.EarlyTypesofMagnetrons.kficrowavemagnetronsandthetheoryoftheiroperationhavetheiroriginincontributionsmadebyagreatmanyinvestigatorsextendingbackatleastto1921.Areviewofthisdevelopmentwillbegivenhere\viththepurposeofpointingoutthesignificantstepsthathaveledtothepresenthighlyefficientsourcesofmicrowaves.Editorialpolicyprecludestheassignmentofcreditfororiginationofideasorinventions,andthisquestionwillbepurposelyavoidedasfaraspossible.
NonoscillatingDiodeswithMagneticFields.The
basisformuchofthetheoryofmagnetronoperationwaslaidbyHulllwhoinvestigatedthebehaviorofelectronsinacylindricaldiodeinthepresenceofamag-neticfieldparalleltoitsaxis.SuchadiodeisshowninFig.1.la.Acylindricalanodesurroundsacentrallyplacedcathodewhichisheatedtoprovideasourceofelectrons.Anearlyuniformmagneticfieldparalleltotheaxisofthetubeisproducedbyasolenoidorexternalmagnetnotshowninthediagram.Inthecrossedelectricandmagneticfieldswhichexistbetweenthecathodeandanodeanelectronthatisemittedbythecath;demovesundertheinfluenceofaforceFe=
Ee
andaforceF~=e/c(;X~)(seeFig.1.2),where
Eis
theelectricfield,
B
themagneticfield,cthevelocityoflight,vthevelocityoftheelectron,andeisitscharge.Thesolutionoftheresultingequationsofmotion,whichneglectspace-chargeeffects,showsthatthepathoftheelectronisaquasi-cycloidalorbitwithafrequencygivenapproximatelyby(1)1A.W.Hull,Phgs.Re~.,18,31(1921).1
 
(a)
INTRODUCTION
(c)
[SEC.
1]
n
(b)
FIWI.I.Earlytypesofmagnetrons:(a)Hulloriginaldiode;(b)
split
node;(c)splitanodewithinternalresonator;(d)improvedsplitanode;(e)four-segmentanode.
 
9CC.
11]
EARLYTYPESOFMAGNETRONS
3Whenthisorbittouchestheanode,aconditionofcutoffissaidtoexist,andEq.(2)holds$=a[l-kYY(2)where
Vis
thepotentialdifferencebetweentheanodeandthecathodeandr.and
r,
aretheirradii.Therelationisanimportantonefromthestandpointofmagnetronoperation.Itimpliesthatfor
V/B2
lessthantherightsideofEq.(2),nocurrentflowsand,as
V/B
isincreaeedthroughthecutoficondition,arapidincreaseincurrenttakesplace.Forobscurereasonsthereductionofcurrentatcutoff,whichisobservedexperimentally,isnotsoabruptasthetheoryoutlinedabovewouldindicate.
CyclotronFrequenqiOscillations.-The
typeofdiodeshowninFig.10lacanbemadetooscillateatveryhighfrequenciesifthe
FIG.
1.2.Forcesonanelectronmovinginadiodewithamagneticfieldparalleltoitsaxis.cathodeandanodearemadepartofaresonantcircuitwithreasonablyhighimpedanceandlowlosses.ConditionsforoscillationarethatV/BmustbeadjustedclosetothecutoffconditiongivenbyEq.(2)andthatthefrequencyoftheresonantcurrentbeclosetothetransitfrequencyof
+
FIG.1.3.—Trajectoriesfelectrons:(1)phasewithrespecttother-ffieldisunfavorableforthesupportofoscil-lations;(2)favorable.theelectrons.AnexplanationoftheseoscillationsisgivenintermsofFig.13.Thedashedcirclerepresentsthepathofanelectronintheinteractionspaceandmodifiesthetrajectoriesofsuchanelec-tron.Curve(1)representsthetrajec-toryofanele~tronemittedataninstantwhenther-ffieldisinthesamedirec-tionasthed-cfield.ThustheeffectiveVactingontheelectronisincreased,andfromEq.(2)itisseenthatthisincreasesthecutoffradiuswiththeresultthattheelectronstrikestheanode.Curve(2)isforanelectronemittedone-halfperiodlaterwhenther-ffieldsareopposedtothed-cfield.Theelectronnowmissestheanodeandreturnstowardthecathode.Sincethefrequencyofrotationasgivenby(1)ismadeclosetother-ffrequency,electron(1)willreturntowardthecathodealsoretardedbyther-ffield.Thiselectronthus

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