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Active Camouflage

Active Camouflage

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Published by andy124

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Published by: andy124 on Aug 07, 2010
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 Active camouflage
 Illustrating the concept, i.e. active captureand re-display, creates an "illusory transpar-ency", also known as "computer mediatedreality"
 Active camouflage
adaptive camou-flage
, is a group of camouflagetechnologieswhich allow an object to blend into its sur-roundings by use of panels or coatings cap-able of altering their appearance, color, lu-minance and reflective properties. Activecamouflage has the capacity to provide per-fect concealment from visual detection.
 Active camouflage differs from conventionalmeans of concealment in two importantways: firstly, it makes the camouflaged objectappear not merely similar to its surround-ings, but effectively invisible through the useof mimicry; secondly, active camouflagechanges the appearance of the object aschanges occur in the background. Ideally,active camouflage mimics nearby objects aswell as objects as distant as the horizon. Active camouflage has its origins in thediffused lighting camouflagefirst tested onCanadian NavycorvettesduringWorld War II, and later in the armed forces of the UnitedKingdom and the United States of America.Current systems began with aUnitedStates Air Forceprogram which placed low-intensity blue lights on aircraft. As nightskies are not pitch black, a 100 percentblack-colored aircraft might be rendered vis-ible. By emitting a small amount of blue light,the aircraft blends more effectively into thenight sky. Active camouflage is rumored to havetaken a new turn with the development of theBoeing Bird of Prey, which apparently took the technology further. (The Bird of Prey wasablack projectand available data is limited.) Active camouflage is poised to develop ata rapid pace with the development of organiclight-emitting diodes(OLEDs) and other tech-nologies which allow for images to be projec-ted onto irregularly-shaped surfaces. Withthe addition of a camera, an object may notbe made completelyinvisible, but may in the-ory mimic enough of its surrounding back-ground to avoid detection by the humaneyeas well as optical sensors. As motion may stillbe noticeable, an object might not berendered undetectable under this circum-stance but potentially more difficult to hit.This has been demonstrated with videos of "wearable" displays where the camera couldsee "through" the wearer.
Optical CamouflageResearch
University of Tokyo
Outside fiction, the concept exists only in the-ory and in proof-of-concept prototypes, al-though many experts consider it technicallyfeasible. In2003three professors at
 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaActive camouflage
University of TokyoSusumu Tachi, Masahiko InamiandNaoki Kawakami— cre- ated a prototypical camouflage system inwhich a video camera takes a shot of thebackground and displays it on a cloth usingan external projector. The same year
magazinenamed it the coolest invention of 2003.[1]Withflexible electronicssuch as a flexibleliquid crystal displaythat would per-mit display of the background image by thematerial itself, this form of optical camou-flage may closely resemble its fictionalcounterparts.
UC Berkeley
In2008, theUniversity of California at Berke- leyand theLawrence Berkeley National Lab-oratoryannounced the creation of ametama-terialwhich has a negative refraction index;that is, light doesn’t reflect or refract on it.Instead, light bends around the object. It cur-rently works only on microwave frequenciesbut is expected to work on thevisible spec-trumas the materials are made smaller. Thetechnology is being funded by theUS milit-ary.
Phased array optics(PAO) provides an imple-mentation of optical camouflage. Instead of producing a two dimensional image of back-ground scenery on an object, PAO would usecomputational holographyto produce a threedimensional hologram of background sceneryon an object to be concealed. Unlike a two di-mensional image, the holographic imagewould appear to be the actual scenery behindthe object independent of viewer distance or view angle.
In fiction
The active camouflage suit by name is cred-ited toscience fictionauthorPhilip K. Dick in his1974novel
. Worn bythenarcoticsdoubleagentBob Arctor/Fred, the "scramble suit" is described as a flexiblesheath covering the body of the wearer witha reflective/refractivecoatingon the insidesurface that transfers the camouflaging pat-tern — projected by aholographiclensmoun- ted on the wearer’s head — onto the outsidesurface of the sheath.
Satirical wearable version of illusory trans-parency made from a tiling of  flat panel dis-playssupplied with images from cameras,and a computer processing system. This func-tioning prototype is limited by the number of sensors and transducers.
Dick’s invention has been copied manytimes in novels, films and video games to be-come a standard device in science fiction.Examples appear in theArnold Schwarzeneg-gerfilm
, theJames Bondfilm
, the
videogameseries, theMMOFPSgame
video game series, theCrysisgame’s nanosuit, and within JapaneseAnimeMangaseries like
— cited as the inspiration forTokyoUniversityexperiments into optical camou-flage. A similarcloaking deviceis found in
, however this example does notachieve active camouflage in the same way.It is notable that in
, theThermoptic Camouflage offers concealmentin both the visible light and infrared spectra. Also it will flicker or cease to function uponcontact with water (dependent upon quantityor intensity) or a harsh physical impact.In the book series
, the L.E.P(Lower Elements Police) have technologysimilar to this in the form of "camfoil". While
 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaActive camouflage
invisible to human eye, it does not work withcameras and can be shorted out by a showeror moisture in the air. It was developed to as-sist Faries as shielding (their natural cloak-ing, caused by vibrating at high frequencies)takes a lot out of them..In the popular video game series
,active camouflage is a power-up that can beobtained. Certain variants of the game’s alienrace of Elitesuse this as well and are almostinvisible, appearing as faint outlines of them-selves against the game’s landscape. Activecamouflage is also used by the spies in themultiplayer modes of 
, making them harder to spot;however, it had a very limited power supply,making the suit only work for fifteen seconds,and contact with water will also short thesystem out. An additional fictional example of activecamouflage in animals is theGila-Munga, arace of extraterrestrial assassins appearinginJudge Dredd, a story serialized in theweekly British comic book anthology2000 AD.
In animals
See also:Category:Animals that can changecolor Active camouflage is not a human invention.The most convincing example of active cam-ouflage in animals is theoctopus, which canblend into its surroundings by changing skincolor as well as skin shape and texture. Thecuttlefish, another cephalopod like the oc-topus, is also known for its color changingcapabilities. Cuttlefish can produce more col-ors than most octopuses can. Thechameleoncan also change its color to blend with itssurroundings. However, a chameleon moreroutinely changes color based on body tem-perature and how stressed it is. The ability isalso used to communicate with otherchameleons. Color change is also communic-ative in octopuses and cuttlefish.
See also
Cuttlefishchanging color 
Burr, E. Godfrey. "Illumination forConcealment of Ships at Night."Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada (Third series, volume XLI, May1947, p. 45-54).No Day Long Enough: Canadian Sciencein World War II. Editor: George R.Lindsey. (Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 1997), p. 172-173.Summary Technical Report of Division 16,NDRC. Volume 2: Visibility Studies andSome Applications in the Field of Camouflage. (Washington, D.C.: Office of Scientific Research and Development,National Defense Research Committee,1946), p. 14-16 and 225-241. [Declassified August 2,1960]. Waddington, C.H. O.R. in World War 2:Operational Research Against the U-Boat.(London: Elek Science, 1973), p. 164-167.[1]Invisibility shields one step closer withnew metamaterials that bend lightbackwards
 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaActive camouflage

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