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PANALUNIFORMECONV

PANALUNIFORMECONV

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Panal de abeja uniformes convexos
Ingeometry, a
convex uniform honeycomb
is a uniform space-fillingtessellationin three-dimensionalEuclidean space with non-overlapping convex uniform polyhedralcells. Twenty-eight such honeycombs exist:
the familiar cubic honeycomband 7 truncations thereof;
thealternated cubic honeycomband 4 truncations thereof;
10 prismatic forms based on theuniform plane tilings(11 if including the cubichoneycomb);
5 modifications of some of the above by elongation and/or gyration.They can be considered the three-dimensional analogue to theuniform tilings of the plane.
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[edit] History
1900
: Thorold Gossetenumerated the list of semiregular convex polytopes with regular cells (Platonic solids
 
) in his publication
On the Regular and Semi-Regular  Figures in Space of n Dimensions
, including one regular cubic honeycomb, and twosemiregular forms with tetrahedra and octahedra.
1905
: Alfredo Andreinienumerated 25 of these tessellations.
1991
:  Norman Johnson's manuscript
Uniform Polytopes
identified the complete listof 28.
 
1994
: Branko Grünbaum, in his paper 
Uniform tilings of 3-space
, alsoindependently enumerated all 28, after discovering errors in Andreini's publication.He found the 1905 paper, which listed 25, had 1 wrong, and4 being missing.Grünbaum also states that I. Alexeyevof Russia also independently enumerated these forms around the same time.
2006
: George Olshevsky, in his manuscript
Uniform Panoploid Tetracombs
, alongwith repeating the derived list of 11 convex uniform tilings, and 28 convex uniformhoneycombs, expands a further derived list of 143 convex uniform tetracombs(Honeycombs of  uniform polychoronsin 4-space). Only 14 of the convex uniform polyhedra appear in these patterns:
three of the fivePlatonic solids,
six of the thirteen Archimedean solids, and
five of the infinite family of  prisms.
[edit] Names
This set can be called the
regular and semiregular honeycombs
. It has been called the
Archimedean honeycombs
by analogy with the convex uniform (non-regular) polyhedra,commonly calledArchimedean solids. RecentlyConway has suggested naming the set as the
Architectonic tessellations
and the dual honeycombs as the
Catoptric tessellations
.The individual honeycombs are listed with names given to them by Norman Johnson.  (Some of the terms used below are defined inUniform polychoron#Geometric derivations.)For cross-referencing, they are given with list indices from [A]ndreini (1-22), [W]illiams(1-2,9-19), [J]ohnson (11-19, 21-25, 31-34, 41-49, 51-52, 61-65), and [G]runbaum(1-28).
Tessellations listed by infinite Coxeter group families
Fundamental domains in a cubic element of three groups.
 
The fundamental infiniteCoxeter groupsfor 3-space are:1.The
4
, [4,3,4], cubic, (8 unique forms plus one alternation)2.The S
4
, h[4,3,4], alternated cubic, (11 forms, 3 new)3.The P
4
cyclic group, (5 forms, one new)In addition there are 5 special honeycombs which don't have pure reflectional symmetryand are constructed from reflectional forms with
elongation
and
 gyration
operations.The total unique honeycombs above are 18.The prismatic stacks from infinite Coxeter groups for 3-space are:1.The
3
xW
2
, [4,4]x[∞] prismatic group, (2 new forms)2.The V
3
xW
2
, [6,3]x[∞] prismatic group, (7 unique forms)3.The P
3
xW
2
, [Δ]x[∞] prismatic group, (No new forms)4.The W
2
xW
2
xW
2
, [∞]x[∞]x[∞] prismatic group, (These all become a
cubic honeycomb
)In addition there is one special
elongated 
form of the triangular prismatic honeycomb.The total unique prismatic honeycombs above (excluding the cubic counted previously) are10.Combining these counts, 18 and 10 gives us the total 28 uniform honeycombs.
The R 
4
, [4,3,4] group (cubic)
The regular cubic honeycomb, represented by Schläfli symbol {4,3,4}, offers seven uniquederived uniform honeycombs via truncation operations. (One redundant form, the
runcinated cubic honeycomb
, is included for completeness though identical to the cubichoneycomb.)
ReferenceIndicesCoxeter-DynkinandSchläflisymbolsHoneycombnameCell counts/vertexand positions in cubichoneycomb(0)(1)(2)(3)Solids(Partial)Frames(Perspective)vertex fi

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