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Lecture # 03 CFD Techniques and Properties of Numerial Solut

# Lecture # 03 CFD Techniques and Properties of Numerial Solut

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04/12/2014

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Time-stepping techniques
Unsteady ﬂows are parabolic in time
use ‘time-stepping’ methods toadvance transient solutions step-by-step or to compute stationary solutions
timespacezone of influencedependencedomain of
futureresent  past
Initial-boundary value problem
u
=
u
(
x
,t
)
∂ut
+
L
u
=
in
×
(0
,
) time-dependent PDE
B
u
= 0 on Γ
×
(0
,
) boundary conditions
u
=
u
0
in at
t
= 0 initial conditionTime discretization 0 =
t
0
< t
1
< t
2
< ... < t
=
T u
0
u
0
in
Consider a short time interval (
t
n
,t
n
+1
) , where
t
n
+1
=
t
n
+ ∆
t
Given
u
n
u
(
t
n
) use it as initial condition to compute
u
n
+1
u
(
t
n
+1
)
Lecture # 03CFD Techniques and Properties of Numerical SolutionJetWings1

Space-time discretization
Space discretization: ﬁnite diﬀerences/ﬁnite volumes/ﬁnite elementsUnknowns:
u
i
(
t
) time-dependent nodal values / cell mean valuesTime discretization: (i) before or (ii) after the discretization in space
The space and time variables are essentially decoupled and can be discretized independently to obtain a sequence of (nonlinear) algebraic systems
A
(
u
n
+1
,u
n
)
u
n
+1
=
b
(
u
n
)
n
= 0
,
1
,...,M
1Method of lines (MOL)
LL
h
yields an ODE system for
u
i
(
t
)
du
h
dt
+
L
h
u
h
=
h
on (
t
n
,t
n
+1
) semi-discretized equationsFEM approximation
u
h
(
x
,t
) =
j
=1
u
j
(
t
)
ϕ
j
(
x
)
, u
ni
u
(
x
i
,t
n
)
Lecture # 03CFD Techniques and Properties of Numerical SolutionJetWings2

Properties of time-stepping schemes
Time discretization
t
n
=
n
t,
t
=
=
t
Accumulation of truncation errors
n
= 0
,...,M
1
ǫ
loc
τ
=
O
(∆
t
)
p
ǫ
glob
τ
=
Mǫ
loc
τ
=
O
(∆
t
)
p
1
Remark.
The order of a time-stepping method (i.e., the asymptotic rate atwhich the error is reduced as ∆
t
0) is not the sole indicator of accuracyThe optimal choice of the time-stepping scheme depends on its purpose:
to obtain a time-accurate discretization of a highly dynamic ﬂow problem(evolution details are essential and must be captured) or
to march the numerical solution to a steady state starting with somereasonable initial guess (intermediate results are immaterial)The computational cost of explicit and implicit schemes diﬀers considerably
Lecture # 03CFD Techniques and Properties of Numerical SolutionJetWings3