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Quantum Teleportation

Quantum Teleportation

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Published by: joeshna on Aug 08, 2010
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08/02/2013

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QUANTUM TELEPORTATION
1) Joshna Priyatharshini, 2)Arul Savina Lydia,1, 2: Final ECE, IFET College of engineering, Villupuram.
ABSTRACT:
Teleportation is a new andexciting field of future communication.We know that security in datacommunication is a major concernnowadays. Among the encryptiontechnologies that are avail-able at present, shared key is the most reliablewhich depends on secure key generationand distribution.Teleportation/ Entanglement is a perfect solution for secure key genera-tion and distribution, as for the no cloningtheorem of quantum mechanics anyattempt to intercept the key by theeavesdropper will be detectableimmediately. We have reviewed and presented Teleportation concept, its process, road blocks, and successes thatare achieved recently in a straightforwardmanner and showed that Teleportation isgoing to be used practically for quantumkey distribution in very near future byseparating its unique features.
I. INTRODUCTION
Quantum Teleportation is a process by which we can transfer thequantum state of a system and itscorrelation to another system.Teleportation can deliver the subtle,unscannable kind of information and thisinformation is totally different fromordinary information. Teleportation isdeveloped, based on the concept of Quantum Entanglement. Entangled particles act here as a channel fotransformation.Teleportation/ Entanglement isexploited by parallel computing,quantum communication, cryptographytechnology, distributed computing etc.Of them cryptography is the prosperousfield where it would be possible to useTeleportation/Entanglement in anefficient and effective way, in very near future. In classical cryptography, we canuse public key encryption or shared keyencryption. But public key is vulnerableto attack by quantum computer, asquantum computer would be able to
 
factor the prime product very quickly.Though shared key is secured but itrequires many shared random numbersthat cannot be used more than once,hence the problem of distributingrandom numbers arises.Quantum Teleportation/Entanglement istherefore, to solve the problem. Acompletely secure quantum key can begenerated and distributed (focommunication and decoding oencrypted messages) using entangled photons has been demonstrated. Anyeavesdropper’s attempt to intercept thequantum key will alter the contents in adetectable way, enabling users to discardthe compromised parts of the data.Research is going on to useTeleportation for Quantum KeyDistribution. Quantum teleportation can be implemented with a quantum circuitthat is much simpler than that required by any nontrivial quantumcomputational task. The state of anarbitrary qubit (quantum bit) can beteleported with as few as two quantumexclusive-or (controlled-not) gates.Thus, quantum teleportation issignificantly easier to implement thanquantum computing if we are concernedonly with the complexity of the requiredcircuitry. Short-distance quantumteleportation will play a role intransporting quantum information insidequantum computers.
Quantum teleportationexperiment:
The idea of teleportation is based on thethe uncertainty principle of quantummechanics, which forbids any measuringor scanning process from extracting allthe information in an atom or otheobject. According to the uncertainty principle, the more accurately an objectis scanned, the more it is disturbed bythe scanning process, until one reaches a point where the object's original statehas been completely disrupted, stillwithout having extracted enoughinformation to make a perfect replica.This is like a solid argument againstteleportation: if one cannot extractenough information from an object tomake a perfect copy, it would seem thata perfect copy cannot be made. The wayto make an end- run around this logic,using a celebrated and paradoxicalfeature of quantum mechanics known asthe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect. theway to scan out part of the informationfrom an object
A
, which one wishes toteleport, while causing the remaining,
 
unscanned, part of the information to pass, via the Einstein-Podolsky-Roseneffect, into another object
C
which hasnever been in contact with
A
. Later, byapplying to
C
a treatment depending onthe scanned-out information, it is possible to maneuver 
C
into exactly thesame state as
A
was in before it wasscanned.
A
itself is no longer in thatstate, having been thoroughly disrupted by the scanning, so what has beenachieved is teleportation, not replication.As the figure suggests, the unscanned part of the information is conveyed from
A
to
C
by an intermediary object
B
,which interacts first with
C
and thenwith
A
. What? Can it really be correct tosay "first with
C
and then with
A
"?Surely, in order to convey somethingfrom
A
to
C
, the delivery vehicle mustvisit
A
before
C
, not the other wayaround. But there is a subtle,unscannable kind of information that,unlike any material cargo, and evenunlike ordinary information, can indeed be delivered in such a backward fashion.This subtle kind of information, alsocalled "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)correlation" or "entanglement" has beenat least partly understood since the 1930swhen it was discussed in a famous paper  by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen. In the 1960s John Bellshowed that a pair of entangled particles,which were once in contact but latemove too far apart to interact directly,can exhibit individually random behavior that is too strongly correlated to be explained by classical statistics.Experiments on photons and othe particles have repeatedly confirmedthese correlations, thereby providingstrong evidence for the validity of quantum mechanics, which neatlyexplains them. Another well-known factabout EPR correlations is that theycannot by themselves deliver ameaningful and controllable message. Itwas thought that their only usefulnesswas in proving the validity of quantummechanics. But now it is known that,through the phenomenon of quantumteleportation, they can deliver exactlythat part of the information in an object

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