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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Areas and volumes

This is the chapter where we will actually put our knowledge of (definite) integration to practical use. We willcalculate areas under curves, areas bounded by curves, volumes under surfaces, volumes bounded by surfaces,etc. We will mostly be concerned with areas; however, we will delve a little into calculating volumes for the sake of completeness.Calculating areas and volumes is totally about calculating definite integrals and involves no new concepts. You areadvised to read the chapter on “

Definite Integration

” again if you are not very comfortable in evaluating integrals.We will now start with such calculations through actual examples.Find the area bounded between the curves

y

=

x

2

and

y

=

x

.

Solution:

The bounded area is depicted in the figure below:

y = x

Fig - 1

x y y = x

2

11The shaded area representsthe area A bounded betweenthe two curves

Thus,

( )

120

A x x dx

= −

∫

1230

1units236

x xsq

= − =

Find the area of the region bounded between

x

= 0,

x

= 2,

y

= 2

x

and

y

= 2

x

–

x

2

.

Example – 1Example – 2

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2

Maths / Areas and Volumes

Solution:

The bounded region has been sketched below. Verify for yourself the validity of the figure drawn:

Fig - 2

x y y = 2

x

012The shaded region representsthe area A bounded betweenthe given curves41 y = 2x - x

2

We have,

( )

( )

220

22

x

A x x dx

= − −

∫

2320

2ln23

x

x x

= − +

4814ln23ln2

= − + −

34.unitsln3

sq

= −

Compute the area of the region bounded between the curves

lnlnand

x y ex x yex

= =

Solution:

If you’ve read the chapter on “

Applications of Derivatives

” properly, you should not have much of a problem plotting the graph of the two functions:

Fig - 3

x y1/e1-1 y =ln xexThe point of intersectionis determined by equatingthe equation of the twocurves, i.e,ex ln x =ln xexln x = 0 or ex=1

22

⇒

The shaded area representsthe area A between two curves x = 1 or x =1e

⇒

Example – 3

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3

Maths / Areas and Volumes

From the figure, it is clear that

11/

lnln

e

x A ex x dxex

= −

∫

111/1/

lnln

e e

xdx e x xdxex

= −

∫ ∫

101211/ 1/

11ln22

ee

xtdt e x xdxe

−

= − −

∫ ∫

22

11111224

ee e e

− = − − −

22

111224

e ee e e

−= − − +

2

114

ee e

−= − +

2

5.units4

esqe

−=

A curve

y

=

f

(

x

) passes through the origin. Through any point (

x

,

y

) on the curve, lines are drawn parallel to theco-ordinate axis. If the curve divides the area formed by these lines and the co-ordinate axes in the ratio

m

:

n

, findthe equation of the curve.

Solution:

The situation described in the question is graphically depicted below:

Fig - 4

x y = f(x) y A

2

(x, y) A

1

It is given that A

1

A

2

=mn Note that A + A = xy

12

and A = ydx

2 x0

From the given constraint, we have

00

x x

xy ydxmn ydx

−=

∫ ∫

( )

0

x

n ydx xym n

⇒ =+

∫

Example – 4

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