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Biology- Human Transport Notes

Biology- Human Transport Notes

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Published by acsbr4science1
Notes on transport in Humans excluding circulatory system.

Done by Jereme
Notes on transport in Humans excluding circulatory system.

Done by Jereme

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Published by: acsbr4science1 on Aug 08, 2010
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06/19/2012

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Biology Notes: Transport in humans
General Overview:
 
D
iffusion is not viable in large organisms.
 
A
transport system is necessary for humans.
 
2
types of systems: blood system and lymphatic system.
 
B
lood system transports blood.
 
B
lood consists of plasma, blood cells(corpuscles) and platelets.
Composition of blood:
Plasma
 
S
oluble proteins such as fibrinogen, prothrombin and antibodies.
 
o
 
F
ibrinogen and prothrombin aid in blood clotting.
 
o
 
A
ntibodies help fight diseases.
 
 
D
issolved mineral salts.
 
o
 
B
icarbonates, chlorides, sulfates and phosphates of calcium, sodium and potassium.
 
o
 
T
hese exist as ions in the plasma.
 
o
 
Calcium is essential for blood clotting.
 
 
F
ood substances.
 
o
 
Glucose, amino acids, fats and vitamins.
 
 
E
xcretory products.
 
o
 
U
rea, uric acid and creatinine.
 
o
 
Carbon dioxide is present as bicarbonate ions.
 
 
H
ormones.
o
 
I
nsulin.
T
he amounts of soluble proteins, mineral salts and glucose in the blood plasma are kept relativelyconstant.
Red blood cells/
E
rythrocytes
 
Contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing pigment which combines with oxygen.
o
 
T
his enables transport of oxygen around the body.
 
Circular, flattened and biconcave.
o
 
T
his increases the cells
SA
:V ratio.
A
bsorption and release of oxygen occurs at afaster rate.
 
H
ave no nucleus.
 
E
lastic.
o
 
Can squeeze through narrow blood vessels.Red blood cells are produced by bone marrow and are broken down by the spleen.
H
emoglobin isbroken down by the liver.
White blood cells/Leucocytes
 
 
T
wo main kinds of white blood cells: Lymphocytes and Phagocytes.
o
 
Lymphocytes are produced by the bone marrow and mature in the lymph nodes.
o
 
T
hey produce antibodies to protect the body from microorganisms.
o
 
Phagocytes ingest foreign particles such as bacteria.
o
 
T
his process is known as phagocytosis.
o
 
Phagocytosis is aided by antibodies.
o
 
T
he dead phagocytes and bacteria form pus.
o
 
Lymphocytes have a rounder nucleus while phagocytes have lobed nuclei.
 
White blood cells help the body fight diseases.
B
lood platelets/
T
hrombocytes
 
N
ot true cells.
 
A
id in blood clotting.
B
lood Groups
B
lood groups are important when considering blood transfusions.
A
gglutination (clumping) of bloodcells can occur if the blood groups are not compatible.
A
gglutination occurs when antibodies from the recipients blood react with antigens on the redblood cells of the donors blood.
T
here are 4 blood groups:
A
,
B
,
AB
and O.
A
ntigens and antibodies present in the groups:
Blood Groups Antigen on RBC Antibody in serum
 
 A
antigen
A
antibody b
B
antigen
B
antibody a
 AB
antigen
A
and
B
no antibodies
O
no antigen antibodies a and b
T
ransfusion possibilities:
Recipientsblood group Antibody inrecipientsserumDonors blood group
A
(antigen
A)
 B (antigenB
)
 
A
B (antigen
A
& B
)
 O (noantigens
)
 
A
b - + + -
B
 
a + - + -
A
B
 
no antibodies - - - -
O
a and b + + + -

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