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Spanish Grammar

Spanish Grammar

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Published by: tsmunkhtungalag on Aug 08, 2010
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10/23/2013

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 A-a B-,  -,  CH- D- E- F- G- H-aI ± J- - L- LL- - N- - -P- Q- R- RR- S- T- U- V-,  W- ,   X- Y-  Z-theta, zeta
Las preposiciones
A ± to, at / Voy a Madrid- I'm going to Madrid, Voy a comer - I'm going to eat /
CON with /
Voy con Carlos-I'm going with Carlos, chile con carne- chili with meat/DE ± from, of, about / Es de Paris-He is from Paris, el vaso de leche- glass of milk, el libro de poesía- book of poetry,la historia de amor - story about love, la clase de español- Spanish class, el paño de cocina - dishcloth, teacloth, el librode historia- history book, el libro de Juan- Juan's book /EN ±in, on / Estoy en la clase- I'm in the class, Vamos en 10 minutos- We're going in 10 minutes, El libro en la mesa-The book on the table/SIN ± without / Leo sin gafas- I read without glasses, Quiero un libro sin fotos- I want a book without pictures/
P
or
 
P
ara
 
Location/Movement:General vs Specific
 General location or movement:
by (way of), through, via, around, near 
 Specific destination:
to, toward 
 Hay mucha gente por aquí.There are a lot of peoplehere.Van para el colegio. They're going to(ward)school.Voy a Madrid por Bilbao. I'm going to Madrid viaBilbao.Voy en tren para Madrid.I'm going by train to Madrid.Sal por esta puerta. Go out through this door.Está por el norte. It's to the north.
T
ime:Duration/
P
oint in time vs Deadline
 Duration, inexact point in time:
 for, in, around 
 Deadline, time by which:
by, before, for 
 Estudié por 3 horas. I studied for three hours. Lo haré para mañana. I'll do it by tomorrow. por la mañana por la tarde por la nochein the morningin the afternoonin the eveningTermínelo para el lunes. Finish it before Monday.Te veré por Navidad. I'll see you aroundChristmastime.
 
easons:Cause vs
P
urpose
 Cause, Motive:
out of, for (the sake of), because (of), due to, in support of 
 Purpose, Benefit:
 for, in order to
 Lo hizo por necesidad. He did it out of necessity. Estudio para abogado. I'm studying to be a lawyer.Lo hizo por tí. He did it for your sake. El libro es para tí. The book is for you. No me quedé por el calor. I didn't stay because of theheat. No me quedé para comer. I didn't stay to eat.Lo hago por gusto. I do it because I like to. Lo hago para ganar dinero. I do it to earn money.Votó por el partidosocialista.He voted for the Socialist party.Es un mercado paratouristas.It's a shop for tourists.Gracias por el regalo. Thank you for the gift. una taza para café coffee cup
elationship:Exchange vs Comparison
 Exchange/Payment/Substitution
(in exchange/payment) for, on behalf of 
 Comparison/Contrast/Differences
 for 
 Me dió 2 lápices por mi pluma.He gave me 2 pencils for my pen.Para niño, escucha bien. For a child, he listens well.Pagué mucho por los libros. I paid a lot for the books. Para generosos, losmarroquís.For generous people, there'sno one like Moroccans.Escribí la carta por Lupe. I wrote the letter for (on behalf of) Lupe.¿Quién es Ud. para hablarmeasí?Who are you to talk to melike that?
V
iewpoints:Say so vs Opinion
 Say so, Attitudes
according to, from
 Opinion
in one's opinion, for 
  por lo que dice... from what he says... para mí... in my opinion... por los sondeos... according to the polls... para él... in his opinion, for him...
A
dditional uses of por
 
Means/
A
gent:By, on, with
 Le hablé por teléfono. I talked to him by/on the phone.Lo hizo por su propia mano. He did it with his own hand.Viajé por tren. I went by train.Por trabajar todos los días, gané mucho dinero. By working every day, I earned a lot of money.Fue decidido por el presidente. ( passive voice) It was decided by the president.
 
Math:Multiplication and Division
 2 por 3 son 6 2 times 3 is 66 dividido por 2 son 3 6 divided by 2 is 3Dividí la clase por la mitad. I divided the class in half.
A
ppearance, Consideration: 
A
s
 Me tienen por experto. They see me as an expert.tener a alguien por amigo,tenerlo a uno por amigoto consider someone a friend
Frequency,
P
roportion: 
P
er
 Paga 10 Euros por hora. He pays 10 Euros per hour.tres veces por semana three times per week  por ciento percent
Something which is yet to be completed: 
P
or + Infinitive
 Los platos están por fregar. The dishes are yet to be done.
Saludos - Spanish Greetings
H
i -
Hola
 
Hello
-Bu
enos
dí 
as
 G
oo
d
af 
t
ernoon
 Bu
enas
t
ar
d
es
 G
oo
d
even
i
ng
 Bu
enas
 
noc
h
es
 
Ho
w
are
y
o
u?
singular 
 
 plural 
 
 familiar 
¿Cóm
o
 
es
s
? ¿Cóm
o
 
es
tái
s
?
 formal 
¿Cóm
o
 
es
tá Ud.? ¿Cóm
o
 
es
n
Ud
s
.?
Ho
w'
s
it
go
i
ng
? ¿Qué t
al
?I'm...E
s
t
o
y...*G
oo
dBi
en
 G
rea
tMuy bi
en
 G
oo
d-by
e
 Adió
s
 S
ee
y
o
u
la
t
er
 
Has
t
a
 
l
u
ego
 
Has
t
a
p
ron
t
o
 
Has
t
a
 
la
 
v
i
s
t
a
 
Lo - Neuter Article
 In addition to thedefiniteandindefinite articles, Spanish has what is called a
neuter article
. This article,
lo
, isinvariable and is used in front of just about any adjective in order to express something abstract or a quality.lo fácil the easy thing, partlo bueno the good thing

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