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Coasts

Coasts

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Geo notes on coasts
Geo notes on coasts

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Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Aug 09, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial No-derivs

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10/25/2012

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Coasts
Waves
What are waves?
y
 
Waves are water movements that rise and fall on the water surface
y
 
I
t is caused by wind energy that is transferred from the wind to the water as the wind blowsover the surface of the ocean
Wave energy
Wind speed
y
 
I
t is how fast the wind blows over the water surface
y
 
G
reater speed
 
G
reater wind energy
Larger waves
Fetch
y
 
D
istance of the ocean in which the wind blows
y
 
Longer fetch
Larger waves
D
uration of wind
y
 
Length of time in which the wind blows
y
 
Longer the wind blows
Larger waves
Wave movement
y
 
Waves that collapses and breaks onto the beach as a forward movement are called swash
y
 
Waves that is pulled back into the sea by gravity are called backwash
T
ypes of waves
D
estructive waves
y
 
S
trong waves
y
 
H
as a weak swash
y
 
H
as a powerful backwash
y
 
T
his scours the beach, pulling the sand and shingle down the beach, eroding the beach
y
 
T
hus the beach is steep
 
C
onstructive waves
y
 
G
entle waves
y
 
H
as a powerful swash
y
 
H
as a weak backwash
y
 
T
his pushes materials up the beach, building it
y
 
T
hus the beach is gentle
Tid
es
y
 
T
ides are daily alternating rising and falling of the sea level seen along coasts
y
 
T
hey are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and
S
un
y
 
T
here are 2 high and low tides within 24 hours
Currents
y
 
T
hey are large scale and persistent movement of water in the ocean driven mainly by prevailingwinds
y
 
E.G.
Long shore current, which moves parallel to the coast
Coastal eros
i
on
T
ypes of coastal eros
i
on
H
ydraulic action
y
 
Water surges into joint and compresses the air inside
y
 
When the water retreats, pressure is released and the air expands
y
 
T
he repeated expansion and compression of the air causes the cracks to widen and weaken,thus breaking the rocks apart
C
orrosion
y
 
Waves carry sediments and rock fragments such has cobble, pebbles and gravel
y
 
When the waves crash into the coast, they act like chiseling tool, cutting and breaking rocks
Attrition
y
 
Materials are carried in the waves constantly collide with one another
y
 
T
his causes rocks to break into smaller pieces and are swept onto the shore as sand
S
olution
 
y
 
O
nly soluble materials in coastal rocks are dissolved and removed by the sea water
What affects coastal eros
i
on?
T
ypes of waves
y
 
D
estructive waves would cause more materials to be erode, compared to constructive waves
Position of coast
y
 
T
here is less coastal erosion when the rocks are parallel to the coastline
y
 
T
here is more coastal erosion when the rock are perpendicular to the coastline
Rock structure
y
 
From most susceptible to coastal erosion to least:
S
ea ward dipping rocks, Land ward dippingrocks,
H
orizontally bedded cliffs, Vertically bedded cliffs
y
 
S
eaward dipping rocks are most easily eroded, because its line of weakness faces the sea
y
 
H
ence it encourages erosion
y
 
Also the slabs of eroded rocks are more susceptible to collapse towards the sea, leading toincreased rate of erosion
Coastal transportat
i
on
y
 
Wave direction arrives at the shore at a slight angle
y
 
T
he swash moves the load up at a slight angle, due to the wave direction
y
 
T
he backwash carries the load back to the sea at a right angle to the coast due to gravity
y
 
T
his zigzag movement transports the materials on the beach
.
 
y
 
I
t is also called beach drifting
y
 
T
he rock materials become smaller and more sorted as they move further away from the origin
y
 
B
each drifting + Long shore current = Long shore drift
y
 
O
nly wind direction affects coastal transportation
Coastal lan
d
forms
Hea
d
lan
d
s an
d
bays
y
 
T
hey are formed due to alternating bands of resistant and less resistant rocks, causing differenterosion
y
 
Less resistant rocks would erode faster , forming bays
y
 
And protruding areas of resistant rocks would form headlands
y
 
After a long time, the coastline would be straight again

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