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Table Of Contents

1.FUNCTIONS OF SCAFFOLD
2.ABSORBABLE BIOMATERIALS
2.1.Natural Polymers
2.1.2.Polysaccharides
2.1.3.Natural Composite—ECM
2.2.Synthetic Polymers
2.2.3.Others
2.3.Inorganic Materials—Calcium Phosphate
2.4.Composite Materials
3.PORE CREATION IN BIOMATERIALS
3.1.Phase Separation (Freeze Drying)
3.2.Porogen Leaching
3.3.Fiber Bonding
3.4.Gas Foaming
3.5.Rapid Prototyping
3.6.Electrospinning
4.SPECIAL SCAFFOLDS
4.1.Naturally Derived Scaffolds
4.1.1.ECM-like Scaffolds
4.1.2.Fibrin Gel
4.1.3.MatrigelTM
4.1.4.Marine Natural Scaffold
4.2.Injectable Scaffolds
4.3.Soft,Elastic Scaffolds
4.4.Inorganic Scaffolds
4.5.Composite Scaffolds
5.SURFACE MODIFICATIONS
5.1.Cell Interactions in Natural Tissues
5.2.Artificial Surface in Biological Environment
6.CELL EXPANSION AND DIFFERENTIATION
6.1.Monolayer (2-D) and 3-D Culture
6.2.Cell Seeding
6.2.2.Cell Adhesion
6.2.3.Seeding Efficiency
6.2.4.Assessment of Cells in Scaffolds
6.2.5.Gene Expression of Cells
6.3.Bioreactors
6.3.1.Spinner Flask
6.3.2.Perfusion System
6.3.3.Rotating Wall Reactor
6.3.4.Kinetics
6.4.Externally Applied Mechanical Stimulation
6.5.Neovascularization
7.GROWTH FACTORS
7.1.Representative Growth Factors
7.1.4.TGF- 1
7.2.Delivery of Growth Factors
8.CELL SOURCES
8.1.Differentiated Cells
8.2.Somatic (Adult) Stem Cells
8.2.2.Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
8.2.3.Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Cells
8.3.Cell Therapy
8.3.1.Angiogenesis
8.3.2.Cardiac Malfunction
8.4.ES Cells
8.4.1.Cell Expansion and Differentiation
8.4.2.Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
REFERENCES
1.BODY SURFACE SYSTEM
1.1.1.Without Cells
1.1.2.Keratinocytes
1.1.3.Keratinocytes on Acellular Dermis
1.1.4.Keratinocytes Fibroblasts
1.1.5.Keratinocytes Melanocytes
1.1.6.Stem Cell Transplantation
1.2.Auricular and Nasoseptal Cartilages
1.3.Adipose Tissue
2.MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
2.1.Articular Cartilage
2.3.Tendon and Ligament
2.3.1.Ligaments
2.3.2.Tendons
2.4.Rotator Cuff
2.5.Skeletal Muscle
2.6.1.Large Joints
2.6.2.Small Joints:Phalangeal Joints
3.CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SYSTEM
3.1.Blood Vessels
3.1.1.Large-Calibered Blood Vessels
3.1.2.Coronary Artery
3.1.3.Angiogenesis
3.1.4.Neovascularization
3.2.Heart Valves
3.3.Myocardial Tissue
4.3.Peripheral Nerve
5.MAXILLOFACIAL SYSTEM
5.1.Alveolar Bone and Periodontium
5.4.Mandible
5.5.Orbital Floor
6.GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
6.1.Esophagus
6.3.Bile Duct
6.4.Abdominal Wall
6.5.Small Intestine
7.UROGENITAL SYSTEM
7.4.Vaginal Tissue
7.5.Corporal Tissue
8.OTHERS
8.1.Skull Base
8.2.Dura Mater
8.4.Prenatal Tissues
1.BIOMATERIALS
1.1.Naturally Occurring Polymers
1.1.1Proteins
1.1.2.Polysaccharides
1.2.Synthetic Polymers
1.2.1.Poly( -hydroxyacid)s
1.2.3.Polyurethanes
1.2.4.Others
1.3.Calcium Phosphate
1.4.Composites
2.FABRICATION OF POROUS SCAFFOLDS
2.1.Freeze Drying
2.2.Porogen Leaching
2.3.Gas Foaming
2.4.Rapid Prototyping
2.5.Electrospinning
2.6.UV and Laser Irradiation
3.NOVEL SCAFFOLDS
3.1.Naturally Derived Scaffolds
3.1.1.ECM-like Scaffolds
3.1.2.Tissue-Derived Scaffolds
3.1.3.Fibrin Gel
3.1.4.Natural Sponge
3.2.Injectable Scaffolds
3.3.Elastic Scaffolds
3.4.Inorganic Scaffolds
3.5.Composite Scaffolds
4.SURFACE MODIFICATION OF BIOMATERIALS AND CELL INTERACTIONS
5.GROWTH FACTORS AND CARRIERS
5.1.Growth Factor–like Polymers
5.2.Carriers
5.3.Combined and Sequential Release of Growth Factors
5.4.Gene Transfer
6.CELL CULTURE
6.1.Cell Seeding
6.3.2.Perfusion Reactor
6.3.3.Rotating Reactor
6.4.Kinetics
6.5.Mechanical Stimulation
6.6.Cell counting and distribution in scaffolds
7.1.2.Fibroblasts
7.1.3.Chondrocytes
7.1.4.Bone Cells
7.1.5.Vascular Cells
7.1.6.Hepatocytes
7.1.7.Oral Cells
7.1.8.Neuronal Cells
7.1.9.Retinal Cells
7.2.Stem Cells
7.2.2.Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
7.2.4.ES Cells
1.PROBLEMS IN TISSUE ENGINEERING
2.SITES FOR NEOTISSUE CREATION
2.1.Ex vivoTissue Engineering
2.2.In situTissue Engineering
3.AUTOLOGOUS OR ALLOGENEIC CELLS
3.1.Allogeneic Cells
3.2.Autologous Cells
4.CELL TYPES
5.RISKS AT CELL CULTURE
6.SCAFFOLDS FOR LARGE ANIMALS AND HUMAN TRIALS
6.1.Mechanical Strength
6.2.Bioabsorption Rate
6.3.Tailoring of Ultrafine Structure
7.IMPORTANCE OF NEOVASCULARIZATION
8.CARRIERS FOR GROWTH FACTORS
9.PRIMARY ROLES OF EACH PLAYER IN THE TISSUE ENGINEERING ARENA
9.1.Scientists and Engineers
9.2.Clinicians
9.3.Manufacturers
9.4.Regulatory Agencies
Index
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Tissue Engineering - Fundamentals and Applications

Tissue Engineering - Fundamentals and Applications

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Published by: desivalda on Aug 09, 2010
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