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Table Of Contents

The abacuswas an early aid for
In 1617 an eccentric (some say mad)
Scotsman named John Napier
Napier also invented an alternative to
Schickard died soon afterward in
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (co-inventor with
Newton of calculus) managed to build a four-
In 1801 the Frenchman Joseph
Marie Jacquard invented a
(remember the "hanging chad"
Jacquard's technology was a real
History is full of examples of labor
By 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbagewas
Babbage's machine could eliminate errors in these types of
English history. Ten years later the device was still nowhere
Jacquard. But it was Babbage who made an important
Babbage saw that the pattern of holes could be used to
Store was where numbers were held and the Mill
The Analytic Engine also had a key function that
You have probably observed that a modern stoplight at an
Analytic Engine to begin fashioning programs for the still
"Notes" wherein she detailed sequences of instructions she
Babbage himself went on to invent the modern postal
The next breakthrough occurred in America. The U.S
Constitution states that a census should be taken of all U.S
U.S. population had grown so much that the count for the
1880 census took 7.5 years. Automation was clearly needed
The patterns on Jacquard's cards were determined when a
Hollerith had the insight to convert punched cards to what is
Hollerith realized how useful it would be to punch (write) new
Hollerith's technique was successful and the
1890 census was completed in only 3 years at a
Roman society the public official called the
Federal government were actually punch cards. The
Hollerith census
IBM continued to develop mechanical calculators
But the U.S. military desired a mechanical calculator
War II the U.S. had battleships that could lob shells
During World War II the U.S. military scoured
Sometimes artillery pieces had to be delivered
One early success was the Harvard Mark Icomputer
Hopper. Hopper found the first
In 1953 Grace Hopper invented the first high-level
The Mark I operated on numbers that were 23 digits
RAM and another 10 billion numbers on their hard disk
1947. He just didn't foresee the micro-electronics
(that's just the operator's
Computers had been incredibly
The primary advantage of an integrated circuit is not that
(maybe 12) of optical masks that define the geometry of
Gutenberg's printing press sped up the fabrication of
The IBM Stretch computer of 1959 needed its 33 foot
These transistors were tremendously smaller than the
Today's Pentium 4microprocessor contains
It's humorous to remember that in between the
Stretch machine (which would be called a mainframe
War II. It's inventors didn't even bother to preserve the machine
Another candidate for granddaddy of
Germany. Britain led the world in
Konrad Zusewas published for the first
World War II. Zuse couldn't even obtain paper tape so he had to make his
The title of forefather of today's all-electronic digital
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. ENIAC was
To reprogram the ENIAC you had to
Circumference = 3.14 * diameter
To perform this computation on ENIAC
Captain who was their liaison with their military
One of the most obvious problems was that the design would
"wartime cooperation"). Eckert solved the tube reliability problem
ENIAC in 2.8 thousandths of a second. ENIAC's basic clock
Once ENIAC was finished and proved worthy of the
ENIAC's program. Eckert and Mauchly's next teamed
Because he was the first to publish a description of this
After ENIAC and EDVAC came other
"2001: A Space Odyssey" born at
Champaign-Urbana. Have you ever
Greek. By 8 he was doing calculus. He could recite books he had
This is one source of the general protection faultfamous in
By the end of the 1950's computers were no
Pennsylvania over a dispute about who owned
Automatic Computer") was the household word
Many people still confuse a picture of a reel-to-
ENIAC was unquestionably the origin of the U.S. commercial
There were 2 ways to interact with a
Perhaps 100 users would be simultaneously
A teletype was a motorized typewriter that
After observing the holes in paper tape it is perhaps obvious
Mark I used relays to represent data because a relay (which
The earliest all-electronic computers used vacuum tubes as
Paper tape has a long history as well. It was first used
Wheatstone was also the inventor of the accordion)
The alternative to time sharing was batch mode
University students in the 1970's bought blank cards a
You often submitted your deck and then went to dinner
But things changed fast. By the 1990's a university
This transformation was a result of the invention of the
1971. The micro in the name microprocessor refers to the physical
Intel was started in 1968 and initially produced only semiconductor
But a new Intel employee (Ted Hoff) convinced Busicom
Busicom agreed to pay Intel to design a general purpose
The 4004 consisted of 2300 transistors and was clocked at
Intel followed the 4004 with the 8008 and 8080. Intel priced
A Harvard freshman by the name of Bill Gates
The home page (URL) for this collection of software is
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CSCI01TD - Computer History Presentation

CSCI01TD - Computer History Presentation

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Published by: ber on Aug 09, 2010
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