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Torque

Torque

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Published by: sami4330 on Aug 09, 2010
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05/17/2013

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TORQUE ProgramExample Calculation - Metric UnitsPresented below are the results from TORQUE for a M12 Grade 8.8 bolt with a nylon patch type locking device that creates a prevailing torque. (These calculations are inmetric units, the TORQUE program can also work in units of inches and pounds andwork with the unified thread form.)
TORQUE TIGHTENING ANALYSIS RESULTS Example calculation for a M12 bolt. Torque tightening analysis for a M12 bolt. FASTENER DETAILSFastener Diameter = 12.00 mmFastener Shank Diameter = 12.00 mmThread Pitch = 1.75 mmIncluded angle between the thread flanks = 60.00 degreesThread Pitch Diameter = 10.863 mmThread Root Diameter = 9.853 mmDiameter related to the Thread Stress Area = 10.358 mmThread Stress Area = 84.264 mm²Thread Root Area = 76.248 mm²Bearing Area under Nut/Bolt Head = 99.620 mm²Fastener Outer Bearing Diameter = 17.20 mmFastener Inner Bearing Diameter = 13.00 mmFastener Clearance Hole Diameter = 13.00 mmEffective friction diameter of nut/bolt = 15.20 mmFastener Yield Strength = 640.00 N/mm² JOINT ASSEMBLY DETAILSBlack oxide steel external thread, no finish on steelinternal thread, no lubricant. Black oxide steel nutor bolt, no oil, machined steel bearing surface. Prevailingtorque caused by a nylon/polyester patch on the threads.Thread Friction Value = 0.120Nut/Bolt Head Friction Value = 0.120 TORQUE TIGHTENING ANALYSIS RESULTSYield Point Tightening Factor specified = 0.90Total Tightening Torque = 83.64 NmThis torque is composed from:Torque needed to extend the fastener = 8.98 NmTorque needed to overcome thread friction = 24.26 NmTorque needed to overcome nutface friction = 29.40 NmPrevailing Torque Value = 21.00 Nm FORCE ANALYSIS RESULTSFastener Preload = 32239.37 NDirect Force that would Yield the Fastener = 53928.91 NPreload as a percentage of Yield Force = 59.78 % 
 
MAXIMUM STRESSES INDUCED INTO THE FASTENERPercentage of the yield strength utilised = 90.00 %Von-Mises Equivalent Stress = 576.00 N/mm²Tensile Stress due to Preload = 382.60 N/mm²Torsional Stress due to the applied torque = 248.59 N/mm²Surface Pressure under the Nut Face = 323.62 N/mm²
Bolt Preload Calculation
Question
: How is bolt installation preload calculated?
Answer
: Bolt pretension, also called preload or prestress, comes from the installationtorque T you apply when you install the bolt. The inclined plane of the bolt thread helixconverts torque to bolt pretension. Bolt preload is computed as follows.
 
P
i
= T/(K D) (Eq. 1)where P
i
= bolt preload (called F
i
in Shigley).T = bolt installation torque.K = torque coefficient.D = bolt nominal shank diameter (i.e., bolt nominal size).Torque coefficient K is a function of thread geometry, thread coefficient of friction
µ
t
,and collar coefficient of friction
µ
c
. Look up K for your specific thread interface andcollar (bolt head or nut annulus) interface materials, surface condition, and lubricant (if any). ("Torque specs for screws," Shigley, and various other sources discuss various K value estimates.) If you cannot find or obtain K from credible references or sources for your specific interfaces, then you would need to research to try to find the coefficients of friction for your specific interfaces, then calculate K yourself using one of the followingtwo formulas listed below (Shigley,
Mechanical Engineering Design
, 5 ed., McGraw-Hill, 1989, p. 346, Eq. 8-19, and MIL-HDBK-60, 1990, Sect. 100.5.1, p. 26, Eq. 100.5.1,respectively), the latter being far simpler.
 
K = {[(0.5 d
 p
)(tan
λ
+
µ
t
sec
β
)/(1 – 
µ
t
tan
λ
sec
β
)] + [0.625
µ
c
D]}/D(Eq. 2)
 
K = {[0.5
 p
/
π
] + [0.5
µ
t
(D – 0.75
 p
sin
α
)/sin
α
] + [0.625
µ
c
D]}/D(Eq. 3)
 
where D = bolt nominal shank diameter.
 p
= thread pitch (bolt longitudinal distance per thread).
α
= thread profile angle = 60° (for M, MJ, UN, UNR, and UNJ thread profiles).
β
= thread profile half angle = 60°/2 = 30°.tan
λ
= thread helix angle tan =
 p
/(
π
d
 p
).d
 p
= bolt pitch diameter.
µ
t
= thread coefficient of friction.
µ
c
= collar coefficient of friction.D and
 p
can be obtained from bolt tables such asStandard Metric and USA Bolt Shank Dimensions.The three terms in Eq. 3 are axial load component (coefficient) of torque resistance due to(1) thread helix inclined plane normal force, (2) thread helix inclined plane tangential(thread friction) force, and (3) bolt head or nut washer face friction force, respectively.However, whether you look up K in references or calculate it yourself, the engineer mustunderstand that using theoretical equations and typical values for K and coefficients of friction merely gives a preload
estimate
. Coefficient of friction data in published tablesvary widely, are often tenuous, and are often not specific to your specific interfacecombinations and lubricants. Such things as unacknowledged surface conditionvariations and
ignored dirt 
in the internal thread can skew the results and produce a falseindication of preload.The engineer and technician must understand that published K values apply to perfectlyclean interfaces and lubricants (if any). If, for example, the threads of a steel, zinc-plated,K = 0.22, "dry" installation fastener were not clean, this might cause K to increase to avalue of 0.32 or even higher. One should also note that published K values are intendedto be used when applying the torque to the nut. The K values will change in relation tofastener length and assembly running torque if the torque is being read from the bolthead.One should measure the nut or assembly "running" torque with an accurate, small-scaletorque wrench. ("Running" torque, also called prevailing torque, is defined as the torquewhen all threads are fully engaged, fastener is in motion, and washer face has not yetmade contact.) The
only
torque that generates bolt preload is the torque you apply
above
running torque.A few more things to be aware of are as follows. Bolt proof strength S
 p
is the maximumtensile stress the bolt material can withstand without encountering permanentdeformation. Published bolt yield strengths are determined at room temperature. Heatwill lower the yield strength (and proof strength) of a fastener. Especially in criticalsituations, you should never reuse a fastener unless you are certain the fastener has never  been yielded.

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