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Study Guide 20 - Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

Study Guide 20 - Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS AND HEMODYNAMICS
Name the main blood vessel types.
There are three main categories of blood vessels that form a closed system of tubes leading from the heart, to the tissues, and back to the heart: arteries,capillaries, and veins.
A. ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSELS1. ARTERIES
 
What is an artery?
 An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heartand toward the tissues. Each artery has a wall consisting of threelayers surrounding a hollow center called the lumen.
Identify each of the following as pertains to arteries:
Tunica intima -- The innermost coat of all blood vessels is thetunica interna (intima). It consists of a simple squamousendothelium lying on its basement membrane and a thinconnective tissue component called the internal elasticlamina.Tunica media -- The middle coat, known as the tunica media,consists of two components: elastin fibers, and smoothmuscle. These tissues are arranged circumferentially aboutthe artery and longitudinally through the length of the vessel.Tunica adventitia -- The outermost coat, the tunica externa(adventitia) consists of two components: elastin fibers andcollagen fibers. These fibers form a connective tissue wrapfor the vessel.
Name and define the two functional properties of arteries.
The structure of arteries gives them two important functionalproperties: elasticity and contractility.Elasticity is the ability to return to a resting length after beingstretched.Vascular smooth muscle is innervated by the sympathetic nervoussystem. In response, the cells shorten and thicken. This iscontractility.
 
 
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What is elastic recoil?
 As blood is ejected into the large arteries, their walls expand toaccommodate the increased blood flow. As the ventricles relax, theelastic recoil of the arterial wall forces the blood forward through thesystem. It is this pressure exerted by arteries during diastole of theventricles that maintains blood pressure and therefore blood flowthrough the body.
Distinguish between vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
In response to a sympathetic message, smooth muscle of theartery contracts and narrows the vessel lumen diameter (vasoconsriction).When the sympathetic message is removed, the arterial smoothmuscle relaxes and vessel lumen diameter increases (vasodilation).
Name the two types of arteries based on size and function.
There are two types of arteries based on size:1. elastic (conducting) arteries2. muscular (distributing) arteries
a
. ELASTIC (CONDUCTING) ARTERIES
Describe and name the elastic arteries.
Elastic arteries contain primarily elastin fibers in the tunicamedia. They are also called conducting arteries becausethey are large arteries that conduct blood away from theheart.Elastic arteries are the ones that accommodate bloodsurging from the left ventricles during systole. They are the:aortabrachiocephalicright and left common carotid arteriesright and left subclavian arteriesright and left vertebral arteriesright and left common iliac arteries.
What are pressure reservoirs?
The stretched elastic fibers of the elastic arteries momen-tarily store some of this energy and therefore function aspressure reservoirs. During diastole, the elastic fibers recoil,converting their stored energy into kinetic energy and thus
 
 
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pushing blood forward in the vascular the system in a more-or-less continuous fashion.
b
. MUSCULAR (DISTRIBUTING) ARTERIES
Describe muscular arteries?
Muscular arteries are medium-to-small arteries that havemore smooth muscle than elastin in their tunica media andare thus more capable of vasoconstriction and vasodilationthan are elastic arteries. They are also known as distributingarteries since they branch from the larger, more elasticarteries and distribute blood to the various regions of thebody.
What is blood shunting?
Because of their greater contractility, muscular arteries areused to direct blood flow to various parts of the body accord-ing to their moment-to-moment needs. This is called bloodshunting. For example, vasoconstricting arteries in the skinwhile vasodilating those in the gut would cause an increasedblood flow to the gut.
c
. ANASTOMOSES
What are anastomoses?
There is usually more than one muscular artery supplying aparticular region or tissue. Union of these vessels is calledan anastomosis. Anastomoses provide alternative routes for blood to reach atissue, so that if one source is injured, another sourcecontinues to supply the area.
What is collateral circulation?
The alternate route of blood flow to a particular tissue,flowing through anastomoses, is called that tissue¶scollateral circulation. This alternate route would not be usedunless the preferred route was compromised in some way(i.e.--coronary artery blockage).

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