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Maxima and Minima

Maxima and Minima

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Published by Dennis Dale

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Published by: Dennis Dale on Aug 10, 2010
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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
1
PROBLEM 1What number exceeds its square by themaximum amount?Solution:Let x = the number and x2 = the square of the number y = the difference between x and x2y = x ² x2y' = 1 ² 2x = 0 x = ½ answer Problem 2What positive number added to itsreciprocal gives the minimum sum?Solution:Let x = the required positive number and1/x = the reciprocal of the number y = sum of x and 1/xy = x + 1/xy = x + x-1y' = 1 - x-2 = 0 x = 1 answer Problem 3The sum of two numbers is k. Find theminimum value of the sum of their squares.Solution:Let x and y = the numbersz = sum of their squaresk = x + yy = k ² xz = x2 + y2z = x2 + (k ² x)2dz/dx = 2x + 2(k - x)(-1) = 02x ² k = 0 x = ½ k y = k - ½ k y = ½ k z = (½ k)2 + (½ k)2z = ½ k2Problem 4The sum of two numbers is k. Find theminimum value of the sum of their cubes.Solution:Let x and y = the numbersz = sum of their cubesk = x + yy = k ² xz = x3 + y3z = x3 + (k ² x)3dz/dx = 3x2 + 3(k - x)2(-1) = 0 x2 ² (k2 ² 2kx + x2) = 0 x = ½ k y = k - ½ k y = ½ k z = (½ k)3 + (½ k)3z = ¼ k3Problem 5The sum of two positive numbers is 2. Findthe smallest value possible for the sum ofthe cube of one number and the squareof the other.Solution 5Let x and y = the numbers x + y = 2 Equation (1)1 + y· = 0y· = ²1z = x3 + y2 Equation (2)dz/dx = 3x2 + 2y y· = 03x2 + 2y(²1) = 0y = (3/2) x2From Equation (1) x + (3/2) x2 = 22x + 3x2 = 43x2 + 2x ² 4 = 0 x = 0.8685 & ²1.5352use x = 0.8685y = (3/2)(0.8685)2y = 1.1315z = 0.86853 + 1.13152z = 1.9354 answer Problem 6Find two numbers whose sum is a, if theproduct of one to the square of the other is to be a minimum.Solution:Let x and y = the numbers x + y = a x = a ² yz = xy2
 
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
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z = (a ² y) y2z = ay2 ² y3dz/dy = 2ay ² 3y2 = 0y = 2/3 a x = a ² 2/3 a x = 1/3 aThe numbers are 1/3 a, and 2/3 a. answer Problem 7Find two numbers whose sum is a, if theproduct of one by the cube of the other isto be a maximum.Solution:Let x and y the numbers x + y = a x = a ² yz = xy3z = (a ² y) y3z = ay3 ² y4dz/dy = 3ay2 ² 4y3 = 0y2 (3a ² 4y) = 0y = 0 (absurd) and 3/4 a (use) x = a - 3/4 a x = 1/4 aThe numbers are 1/4 a and 3/4 a. answer Problem 8Find two numbers whose sum is a, if theproduct of the square of one by the cubeof the other is to be a maximum.Solution:Let x and y the numbers x + y = a1 + y· = 0y = ²1z = x2 y3dz/dx = x2 (3y2 y·) + 2xy3 = 03x(²1) + 2y = 0 x = 2/3 y2/3 y + y = a5/3 y = ay = 3/5 a x = 2/3 (3/5 a) x = 2/5 aThe numbers are 2/5 a and 3/5 a. answer Problem 9What should be the shape of arectangular field of a given area, if it is tobe enclosed by the least amount offencing?Solution:Area:A=xy0=xy·+yy·=²yxPerimeter:P=2x+2ydPdx=2+2y·=01+(²yx)=0y=x (a square) answer Problem 10A rectangular field of given area is to befenced off along the bank of a river. If nofence is needed along the river, what isthe shape of the rectangle requiring theleast amount of fencing?Solution:Area:A=xy0=xy·+yy·=²yxPerimeter:P=x+2ydPdx=1+2y·=01+2(²yx)=0y=21xwidth = ½ × length answer Problem 11A rectangular lot is to be fenced off alonga highway. If the fence on the highwaycosts m dollars per yard, on the other sides n dollars per yard, find the area ofthe largest lot that can be fenced off for k dollars.Solution:Total cost:k=mx+n(2y+x)k=mx+2ny+nxk²(m+n)x=2nyy=k2nï2nm+nxArea:A=xyA=xk2nï2nm+nx
 
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
3
A=k2nxï2nm+nx2dxdA=k2nïnm+nx=0k2n=nm+nx x=k2(m+n)y=k2nï2nm+nk2(m+n)y=k4nA=k2(m+n)k4nA=k28n(m+n) yard2 answer Problem 12A rectangular field of fixed area is to beenclosed and divided into three lots byparallels to one of the sides. What shouldbe the relative dimensions of the field tomake the amount of fencing minimum?SolutionArea:A=xy0=xy·+yy·=²yxFence:P=2x+4ydPdx=2+4y·=02+4(²yx)=0y=21xwidth = ½ × length answer Problem 13Do Ex. 12 with the words ´three lotsµreplaced by ´five lotsµ.SolutionArea:A=xy0=xy·+yy·=²yxFence:P=2x+6ydPdx=2+6y·=02+6(²yx)=0y=31xwidth =31 length answer Problem 14A rectangular lot is bounded at the back by a river. No fence is needed along theriver and there is to be 24-ft opening infront. If the fence along the front costs$1.50 per foot, along the sides $1 per foot,find the dimensions of the largest lotwhich can be thus fenced in for $300.SolutionTotal cost:300=2y+15(x²24)y=168²075xArea:A=xyA=x(168²075x)A=168x²075x2dxdA=168²15x=0 x=112fty=168²075(112)y=84ftDimensions: 84 ft × 112 ft answer Problem 15A box is to be made of a piece ofcardboard 9 inches square by cuttingequal squares out of the corners andturning up the sides. Find the volume ofthe largest box that can be made in thisway.Solution:V=(9²2x)2xV=81x²36x2+4x3dxdV=81²72x+12x2=04x2²24x+27=0using quadratic formulaa=4;b=²24;c=27 x=2aïbb2ï4ac x=2(4)ï(ï24)(ï24)2ï4(4)(27) x=82412 x=45 and 15use x = 1.5 inchesMaximum volume:V=[9²2(15)]2(15)V=54 in2 answer Problem 16Find the volume of the largest box thatcan be made by cutting equal squaresout of the corners of a piece ofcardboard of dimensions 15 inches by 24inches, and then turning up the sides.Solution:V=(24²2x)(15²2x)xV=360x²78x2+4x3dxdV=360²156x+12x2=0 x2²13x+30=0

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