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Biosand Filter, Siphon Filter, Rainwater Harvesting

Biosand Filter, Siphon Filter, Rainwater Harvesting

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Published by: Friends of Utah Rare Plants on Aug 10, 2010
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Strategic Recommendations for New Water Treatment Technologiesand Safe Water Storage to Pure Home WaterDavid BarnesClair CollinSara Ziff May 22, 2009
This report is submitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in partial fulfillment of therequirements for 1.782 Environmental Engineering Master of Engineering Project.Author: David BarnesSigned:Author: Clair CollinSigned:Author: Sara Ziff Signed:Date: May 22, 2009
THE BIOSAND FILTER, SIPHON FILTER, AND RAINWATER HARVESTING:Strategic Recommendations for new water treatment technologies and safe waterstorage to Pure Home Water
 byDavid Barnes, Clair Collin and Sara Ziff 
Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of water-related diseases that predominantly affect peopleliving in developing countries. In Northern Ghana, the area of focus of this research, 37.5% of  people use unimproved, unsafe drinking water sources leading to a high incidence of water-related disease. Diarrhea is the most prevalent water-related disease in the area, contributing to12% of deaths in children under five and 5% of death across all age groups. Guinea worm is alsoa major concern, with Ghana recording 147 new cases in the first three months of 2009, thehighest incident rate in the world.This research focused on provision of safe drinking water through the use of household andcommunity scale technologies use in Northern Ghana. The siphon filter is a new household-scalewater treatment technology that was evaluated
in households in Northern Ghana using
water quality analysis and an Effective Use survey, which determined how properly the technology wasused. The average percent removals were 90.7% for total coliform and 94.1% for 
 E. coli
 (excluding samples showing negative percent removals). However, these values may have beenaffected by recontamination and true filter performance may have been more effective. Thedistinction between middle and lower class households was not found to influence howeffectively the siphon filter was operated. Use of high turbidity water was found to affect siphonfilter performance in households: the filter clogged frequently with high turbidity water, partially because study participants did not consistently maintain the filter. Recontamination of filteredwater was also found to be an issue. If this issue were resolved, the siphon filter would berecommended for households drinking low turbidity water in Northern Ghana over other treatment options considered (i.e. the
pot filter and chlorine). Alum plus chlorine treatmentis recommended for most households drinking turbid water, with the siphon filter as analternative treatment method for households desiring a more permanent treatment technology,again if the siphon filter recontamination issue were resolved.The biosand filter, an established household-scale slow sand filtration water treatmenttechnology, was modified through the addition of a second sand layer for use with high-turbiditysurface water commonly used in Northern Ghana. Field testing of the dual sand layer biosandfilter showed this filter achieved 59% turbidity reduction, 38% higher than an unmodified controlfilter; and at least 85%
 E. coli
and 95% total coliform reductions, comparable in performance tounmodified control filters. Laboratory testing demonstrated minimum average reductions of 93%turbidity, 97%
 E. coli
and 71% total coliform after filter maturation, comparable to unmodifiedcontrol filter results.
Rainwater harvesting presents an opportunity to extend water supply to rural dwellerswhere few other alternatives are available. Rainwater supplies ranged from low (1 to 10

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