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Preface
A letter of introduction
How to use these notes
Credits
Syllabus
0.1 Introduction
0.1.1 A Small Warning
0.1.2 Course Goals
0.1.3 Course Objectives
0.3.2 Project Checklist
0.4 Some Suggestions for Further Reading
1.1 Coordinate Systems
1.2 Reference Frames
1.3. NEWTONIAN ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT SPACE AND TIME 31
1.3 Newtonian Assumptions about Space and
1.6 How can you tell if an object is in an inertial
1.7 Newton’s other Laws
1.8 Homework Problems
2.1 The Basics of E & M
2.1.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
2.2 The elusive ether
2.2.1 The Aberration of Light
2.2.2 Michelson, Morely, and their experiment
2.3 Homework Problems
3.1 The Postulates of Relativity
3.2 Time and Position, take II
3.4. RELATIONS BETWEEN EVENTS IN SPACETIME 61
3.4 Relations between events in Spacetime
3.5 Time Dilation
3.5.1 Rods in the perpendicular direction
3.5.2 Light Clocks and Reference Frames
3.5.3 Proper Time
3.5.4 Why should you believe all of this?
3.6 Length Contraction
3.8 Homework Problems
Minkowskian Geometry
4.1 Minkowskian Geometry
4.1.1 Invariants: Distance vs. the Interval
4.1.2 Curved lines and accelerated objects
4.3 More on Minkowskian Geometry
4.3.1 Drawing proper time and proper distance
4.3.2 Changing Reference Frames
4.3.3 Hyperbolae, again
4.3.4 Boost Parameters and Hyperbolic Trigonometry
4.4.1 Stellar Aberration in Relativity
4.4.2 More on boosts and the 2+1 light cone: the head- light eﬀect
4.4.3 Multiple boosts in 2+1 dimensions
4.4.4 Other eﬀects
4.5 Homework Problems
5.1 The Uniformly Accelerating Worldline
5.1.1 Deﬁning uniform acceleration
5.1.2 Uniform Acceleration and Boost Parameters
5.1.3 Finding the Worldline
5.2.1 Horizons and Simultaneity
5.2.2 Friends on a Rope
5.2.3 The Long Rocket
5.3 Homework Problems
Dynamics: Energy and
6.1 Dynamics, or, “Whatever happened to Forces?”
6.2 Fields, Energy, and Momentum
6.2.1 A word on Energy (E)
6.2.2 A few words on Momentum (P)
6.3 On to relativity
6.3.1 Lasers in a box
6.3.2 Center of Mass
6.3.3 Mass vs. Energy
6.3.4 Mass, Energy, and Inertia
6.4 More on Mass, Energy, and Momentum
6.4.1 Energy and Rest Mass
6.4.2 Momentum and Mass
6.5 Energy and Momentum for Light
6.5.1 Light speed and massless objects
6.5.2 Another look at the Doppler eﬀect
6.7 Homework Problems
7.1 The Gravitational Field
7.1.1 Newtonian Gravity vs. relativity
7.1.2 The importance of the ﬁeld
7.2 Some observations
7.2.1 Free Fall
7.2.2 The 2nd ingredient: The eﬀects of gravity on light
7.2.4 Gravity and Accelerating Frames
7.3 The Equivalence Principle
7.3.1 Gravity and Locality
7.3.2 How Local?
7.4 Going beyond locality
7.4.1 A Tiny Tower
7.6 Homework Problems
8.1.1 Straight Lines in Curved Space
8.1.2 Curved Surfaces are Locally Flat
8.1.3 From curved space to curved spacetime
8.2 More on Curved Space
8.3 Gravity and the Metric
8.3.1 Building Intuition in ﬂat space
8.3.2 On to Angles
8.3.3 Metrics on Curved space
8.3.4 A ﬁrst example
8.3.5 A second example
8.3.6 Some parting comments on metrics
8.4 What is the metric of spacetime?
8.4.1 The Einstein equations
8.4.2 The Newtonian Approximation
8.4.3 The Schwarzschild Metric
8.5.1 The planet Mercury
8.5.2 The Bending of Starlight
8.5.3 Other experiments: Radar Time Delay
8.6 Homework Problems
Black Holes
9.1 Investigating the Schwarzschild Metric
9.1.1 Gravitational Time Dilation from the Metric
9.1.2 Corrections to Newton’s Law
9.2 On Black Holes
9.2.1 Forming a black hole
9.2.2 Matter within the Schwarzschild radius
9.2.3 The Schwarzschild radius and the Horizon
9.2.4 Going Beyond the Horizon
9.2.5 A summary of where we are
9.3 Beyond the Horizon
9.3.1 The interior diagram
9.3.5 Visualizing black hole spacetimes
9.4.1 The setup
9.4.2 The solution
9.4.3 The Diﬀerential equation
9.4.4 What does it all mean?
9.4.5 Black Holes and the Schwarzschild Metric
9.5 Black Hole Astrophysics and Observations
9.5.1 The observational evidence for black holes
9.5.2 Finding other black holes
9.5.3 A few words on Accretion and Energy
9.5.4 So, where does all of this energy go, anyway?
9.6 Black Hole Odds and Ends
9.6.2 Penrose Diagrams, or “How to put inﬁnity in a box”
9.6.3 Penrose Diagrams for Black holes
9.6.4 Some Cool Stuﬀ
9.7 Homework Problems
10.1 The Copernican Principle and Relativity
10.1.1 Homogeneity and Isotropy
10.1.3 Homogeneous Spaces
10.2 Dynamics! (a.k.a. Time Evolution)
10.2.1 Expanding and Contracting Universes
10.2.2 A ﬂat spacetime model
10.2.3 On to the Einstein Equations
10.3 Our Universe: Past, Present, and Future
10.4 Observations and Measurements
10.4.1 Runaway Universe?
10.4.2 Once upon a time in a universe long long ago
10.4.3 A cosmological ‘Problem’
10.4.4 Looking for mass in all the wrong places
10.4.5 Putting it all together
10.5 The Beginning and The End
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Master Notes

# Master Notes

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10/25/2012

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