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62043_01

62043_01

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Published by: richardcrowson1 on Aug 11, 2010
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07/02/2012

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CHAPTER
1
Piping Codes, Standards, andSpecifications
In
the new computer-aided design (CAD) era, the compliance toindustry codes, standards, and specifications remains essential for thesuccessful completion of a process facility, safe operation, and the sat-isfaction of health, safety, and environmental
(HSE)
requirements.The chapter
is
divided into the following sections:
1.1
Introduction
1.2
Definitions
1.3
Codes
1.4
Standards and Specifications
1.1
Introduction
Compliance to a code generally is mandatory, imposed by regulatoryand enforcement agencies or their representatives. Also, the insurancecompany for the facility requires the owner to comply with therequirements of the relevant code or codes to ensure the safety
of
theworkers and the general public. Compliance to standards normally isrequired by the rules of the applicable code or the purchaser’sspecification.
1
 
2 Chapter 1-Piping Codes, Standards, and Specifications
A
vast majority of these codes, standards, and specifications havetheir origins in the United States, because initially this is where themost oil and gas activity was based. This is not likely to change in thenear future; however, in recent years, there has been an increase inthe alignment with ISO, and this is likely to increase.Despite the strength of
U.S.
codes, standards, and specifications, sim-ilar documents from other engineering centers should not be ignored,like British standards
(UK),
DIN
(Germany), AFNOR (France), JIS(Japan),and others.
1.2
Definitions
A
code
identifies the general requirements for the design, materials,fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of process piping systems.For example,
ASME
B31.3-Process Piping is classified as a designcode. This is the most commonly used international design code forprocess plants.
A
standard
contains more-detailed design and construction parame-ters and standard dimensional and tolerance requirements for indi-vidual piping components, such as various types of valves, pipe, tee,flanges, and other in-line items to complete a piping system. Forexample,
ASME
B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, is classifiedas a dimensional standard, but it also references ASTM materialspecifications.
A
specification,
as the word implies, gives more specific informationand data
on
the component; and ASTMs are considered to be mate-rial specifications, although they sometimes are ambiguously called
standard specifications.
ASTM A105 is the “standard specification forcarbon steel forgings for piping applications.”To conclude and combine these definitions,
ASME
B31.3 is a design
code,
with flanges designed to the ASME B16.5
standard,
which areconstructed to the material
specification
ASTM A105.It is not uncommon for even experienced personnel to get the defini-tions
of these three
types
of
document mixed up,
and
it
is
important
to comprehend the distinct differences.
 
1.3
Codes
3
1.3
Codes
A
regulatory organization imposes mandatory compliance to a code,from the basic design through to mechanical completion and even-tual hand-over of a plant to the operator. For example,
ASME
B31.
3,
Process Piping, is the refinery code. The insurer of the plant will makethis a contractual requirement to ensure safety for personnel andplant during construction, commissioning, and ongoing operation.The codes, standards, and specifications that relate to piping systemsand piping components are published by various organizations.These organizations have committees comprising representativesfrom industry associations, manufacturers,
EPC
contractors, endusers/operators, government bodies, insurance companies, and otherinterested groups.
A
committee is responsible for maintaining, updating, and revisingthe codes, standards, and specifications, taking into consideration alltechnological developments, research, experience feedback from endusers, and any changes in referenced codes, standards, specifications,or regulations.The oil and gas industry has been established for many years, andchanges to industry codes are generally negligible. Periodically, revi-sions are published, listing amendments that have been made to thedocument. It is essential that engineers and designers who work regu-larly with the document use the latest edition.With regard to referencing a particular edition, issue, addendum, orrevision of a code or standard, the piping engineer must be aware ofthe national, state, provincial, and local laws and regulations gov-erning its interpretation in addition to the commitments made by theowner and the limitations delineated in the code or standard.
1.3.1American Society
of
Mechanical Engineers BoilerPressure Vessel Codes
The boiler pressure vessel
(BPV)
section covers major codes and stan-
dards related to
piping.
Some
of
these codes and standards
are
dis-
cussed briefly, whereas others are listed for convenience of reference.

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