2 Chapter 1-Piping Codes, Standards, and Specifications
vast majority of these codes, standards, and specifications havetheir origins in the United States, because initially this is where themost oil and gas activity was based. This is not likely to change in thenear future; however, in recent years, there has been an increase inthe alignment with ISO, and this is likely to increase.Despite the strength of
codes, standards, and specifications, sim-ilar documents from other engineering centers should not be ignored,like British standards
(Germany), AFNOR (France), JIS(Japan),and others.
identifies the general requirements for the design, materials,fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of process piping systems.For example,
B31.3-Process Piping is classified as a designcode. This is the most commonly used international design code forprocess plants.
contains more-detailed design and construction parame-ters and standard dimensional and tolerance requirements for indi-vidual piping components, such as various types of valves, pipe, tee,flanges, and other in-line items to complete a piping system. Forexample,
B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, is classifiedas a dimensional standard, but it also references ASTM materialspecifications.
as the word implies, gives more specific informationand data
the component; and ASTM’s are considered to be mate-rial specifications, although they sometimes are ambiguously called
ASTM A105 is the “standard specification forcarbon steel forgings for piping applications.”To conclude and combine these definitions,
B31.3 is a design
with flanges designed to the ASME B16.5
which areconstructed to the material
ASTM A105.It is not uncommon for even experienced personnel to get the defini-tions
of these three
document mixed up,
to comprehend the distinct differences.