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Infection and inflammation

Infection and inflammation

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Published by: jgcriste on Jun 24, 2008
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09/06/2012

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Epidemiology
- Science that study the patterns of health and disease, itsoccurrence and distribution for the prevention of disease
Patterns of Disease Occurrence
1. Sporadic - Intermittent2. Endemic - continuous occurrence3. Epidemic - sudden inc in no. of cases in a short prd of time - outbreak4. Pandemic - worldwide occurrence (e.g. SARS)
Communicable Disease
dse caused by an infectious agent acquired from an infectedindividual transmitted to a susceptible host either by direct or indirect contact or by direct inoculation in the broken skin
Two types of Communicable Dse1. Infectious
- not easily transmitted from one person to another - malaria, tetanus, dengue
2. Contagious
- easily transmitted form one person to another - TB, diphtheria, measles
Infection
The implantation and successful replication of an organism in thetissue of the host resulting to signs and symptoms as well asimmunologic response
Virulence
Ability of the microorganism to produce a disease
 
Pathogenecity
Virulence and potency of the microorganism
True Pathogen
Causes disease or infection in a healthy individual
Opportunistic Pathogen
Causes disease only in susceptible individuals
Carrier 
A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent and servesas a potential source of infection, yet does not manifest any clinicalsigns and symptoms of the disease
Asepsis
Freedom from disease causing microorganisms
Medical Asepsis
Includes all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism toa specific area, limiting the number, growth and transmission of microorganisms.
Objects are referred to as clean or dirty
Surgical Asepsis
Practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganism.
 
Normal Body DefenseNon-specific Defense
Protect the person against all microorganism regardless of prior exposure
Includes anatomic and physiologic barriers and the inflammatoryresponse e.g. skin, nasal passages, saliva, tears
Inflammation
Local and non specific defensive response of the tissues to injury
Manifestations of Inflammation
1.Pain/Dolor 2.Redness/Rubo3.Swelling/Tumo4.Heat/Calor 5.Impairment of Function/Functionlysa
Stages of Inflammation
1.Vascular and cellular responses
Constriction of blood vessels on the site of injury
followed by rapid dilatation of small blood vessels(hyperemia)
responsible for heat and redness
Vascular permeability increases
Releases of chemical mediators(bradykinin, prostaglandin,serotonin, substance P, Histamine)
Outpouring of fluids, proteins and leukocytes into interstitialspace(swelling)

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