Introduction to Sociology
Systematic study of social life and behavior, especially in relationto social systems—how they work, how they change,the consequences they produce, and their complex relation to people’s lives.
(lt.) –companion, associate, partner or mate;
(gk.) – to studySocial systems – set of interrelated elements which can be as large and complexas a society or as small and relatively simple as a married couple. (i.e., marriageis composed of husband and wife, an army’s elements range from the positionssoldiers occupy with their different ranks and duties to collections of soldiers suchas platoons and battalions.
– frameworkfor building theory that sees society as acomplex system whose parts work together topromote solidarity and stability.a.Stability – chief evaluative criterion for any social pattern is whether itcontributes to the maintenance of thesociety.b.Harmony – as the parts of the wholework together for the good of the whole,so the parts of society are alsocharacterized by harmony.c.Change occurs through evaluation –social structures adapt to new needsand demands thus, eliminatingunnecessary and outmoded structures.
– the undesirableconsequences of any social pattern for theoperation of society.
Social Conflict Paradigm
– framework for buildingtheory that sees society as an arena of inequalitythat generates conflict and change. The structure of society is determined by economic organization, andownership of property, in which personal beliefs,cultural values religious dogmas, institutionalorganizations, and class hierarchy were reflected.
Symbolic Interaction Paradigm
– framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. How societyaffects the individuals and vice versa is the core of the theory.
Theoretical ParadigmOrientationImages of Society
Structural-FunctionalMacro-levelA system of interrelated parts that is relatively stablebecause of widespread agreement on what is morallydesirable, each part has particular function in societyas a whole.Social-conflictMacro-levelA system based on social inequality; each part of society benefits some categories of people more thanothers; social inequality leads to conflict, which, inturn, leads to social change.Symbolic InteractionMicro-levelAn ongoing process of social interaction in specificsettings based on symbolic communications;individual perceptions of reality are variable andchanging.
The Sociology of Sport
function of sport: provides recreation and physical conditioning; fosters relationship and generates jobssports & conflict: tennis, swimming and golf are highly expensive, thus, participation is largely limited;sports have been oriented mainly toward males.