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Active Directory Troubleshooting

Active Directory Troubleshooting

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Published by anujsharmaitpro
Active Directory Troubleshooting
http://www.winservers.co.in
Active Directory Troubleshooting
http://www.winservers.co.in

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Published by: anujsharmaitpro on Aug 12, 2010
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 Ask the average Windows system administrator what they think the most prominent feature of Windows 2000 isand they will probably say "Active Directory." Why? First, Active Directory will enable them to deploy Windows-based networks on an unprecedented scale. Second, they know that Active Directory represents a significant changein the way they will manage network entities such as users, computers, network devices and applications. Forexample, there are new user interfaces for most common management activities such as adding users and managingprinters. There are also many new system concepts, such as multi-master replication and DNS integration thatadministrators must understand in order to keep their Active Directory installations healthy.Some might ask why there are so many new concepts to learn. The answer lies in understanding both limitations of earlier directory services and Microsoft's design goals for Active Directory. First-generation directories demonstratedthe power of standards-based repositories, but didn't support replication. By running only on a single machine,they provided no opportunity for scale-out and became a single point of failure in the network. Second-generationtechnologies added single-master replication (with read-only replicas) that scaled much better, but supportedupdates only against the master. In practice, single-master models bound individual deployments to 'regions' of continuous network connectivity. Third-generation directories added multi-master support but with importantconstraints. For example, one third-generation directory service is limited, in practice, to approximately 10 update-able replicas per partition and works best only over high-speed network connections.Microsoft decided that, in order to scale to enterprise levels, Active Directory had to support large numbers of geographic locations (potentially in excess of 1,000) and not be limited by slow or intermittent network connectivity.This led to fourth-generation features in Active Directory such as sites, trees, forests, bridgehead servers, and globalcatalogs. These features have enabled Active Directory to scale to unprecedented levels while remaining manageable. At the same time, there are, as author Sean Daily notes, a lot of moving parts in the average Active Directory deployment. Most of the time, these parts work together just fine. There will be occasions, however, when issuesarise. For example, if a replica is unable to contact any other replica for long periods of time (usually due to net- work configuration problems) some troubleshooting will eventually be required. Then, it will be important tounderstand how Active Directory's parts fit together in order to get to the root of the issue quickly.I believe that this innovative, on-line book from NetPro and Realtimepublishers.com will prove to be a valuableresource for any administrator who is tasked with managing an Active Directory installation. The approach toinformation delivery is ideal. The book starts with important background concepts that will enable the reader tounderstand the design of Active Directory and relationships between components, in a clear and concise way. Laterchapters build on this knowledge by providing step-by-step procedures for diagnosing common issues even whenthe root cause of an issue may not be clear.Most important, this book provides a methodology for proactively keeping an Active Directory installation healthy  while simultaneously enabling administrators to get to the root causes of problems quickly when they do occur.Such a methodology can be 'worth its weight in gold' to today's systems administrators who are responsible forkeeping ever-more complex systems up and running with ever-less downtime!Peter J. Houston Group Program Manager, Active Directory Microsoft CorporationRedmond, WashingtonMarch 6th, 2001
The Definitive Guide to Active Directory TroubleshootingForeword
Foreword by Peter Houston
 
Chapter 1
Introducing Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1The Importance of Directories and Directory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Many Eggs, One Basket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2New Tools for New Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Meet Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3The AD Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Logical Architecture of AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Objects and Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4The Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5LDAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Domains, Trees and Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Organizational Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11The Global Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Physical Structure of AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Domain Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Directory Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12The Operations Masters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 AD’s Backbone:DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Introduction to AD and Win2K Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 AD and Win2K Monitoring Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Change Monitoring and Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Problem Resolution, Automation and Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Chapter 2
Designing an Effective Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Active Directory’s Logical and Physical Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Logical Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Naming Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Physical Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Designing Active Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Designing the Forest and Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Determining the Number of Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Setting Up and Managing Multiple Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Determining the Number of Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Designing the Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Determining the Number of Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Choosing a Forest Root Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
The Definitive Guide to Active Directory Troubleshootingtable of contents
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