(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
There are an enormous number of texture analysis methodsunder this category although none predominates. Methods thatwe used for classification will describe here.V.G
This method was first proposed by Haralick in 1973 andstill is one of the most popular means of texture analysis .The key concept of this method is generating features based ongray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM). The matrices aredesigned to measure the spatial relationships betweenpixels.The method is based on the belief that texture information iscontained in such relationships.Co-occurrence features are obtained from a gray-level co-occurrence matrix. We used 22 features that extracted fromGLCM matrix in our paper [8,4,1].VI.T
EXTURAL FEATURES EXTRACTED FROM GRAY
Our initial assumption in characterizing image texture isthat all the texture information is contained in the gray-levelCo-occurrence matrices. Hence all the textural features hereare extracted from these gray-level Co-occurrence matrices.The equations which define a set of 22measures of texturalfeatures are given in this paper. Some GLCM Extractedtextural features are illustrated in Table 1 for two different leaf images.
Table 1. GLCM Extracted textural features for two different leaf images.
EAF CLASSIFICATION USING
PCAIn this study, wehave followed the method which was proposed by M. Turk and A. Pentland  inorder to develop aleaves classification system based on the eigenspace approach.They argued that, if a multitude of leaf images can bereconstructed by weighted sum of a small collection of characteristic features or eigenpictures, perhaps an efficient wayto learn and recognize leaves would be to build up thecharacteristic features by experience over time and recognize particular leaf by comparing the feature weights needed toapproximately reconstruct them with the weights associated withknown leaves. Therefore, each leaf is characterized by a small setof feature or eigenpicture weights needed to describe andreconstruct them. This is an extremely compact representationwhen compared with the images themselves.VIII.E
XPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSINONS
The experiment is designed to illustrate the performanceof two feature extraction methods, GLCM and PCAalgorithms for plant leaves classification purpose.The GLCM is a tabulation of how often differentcombinations of pixel brightness values (grey levels) occur inan image. The classification steps are illustrated in Figure 2.In the first experiment after changing the color image to gray-level image with using of the GLCM texture feature extractionweextracted the 22features [8,4,1] of each leaf images.
Figure 2. Classification Steps in GLCM method.Table 2. Somefeatures extracted from some chosen leaf image of eachleaves classes in (d=1) and degree 0°.
some texture Features extracted from Leaf image (a)
some texture Features extracted from Leaf image (b)
Gray LevelCo-Occurrence matrixFeatureExtractionClassification
FeaturesSample leaf from leaves Classes
Class 1Class 2Class 3Class 4Class 5Class 6