Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Reliable Routing With Optimized Power Routing For Wireless Adhoc Network

Reliable Routing With Optimized Power Routing For Wireless Adhoc Network

Ratings: (0)|Views: 436|Likes:
Published by ijcsis
In this paper work, a routing protocol called RMP (route management protocol) is implemented to cope with misbehavior operation in AdHoc network. It enables nodes to detect misbehavior by first-hand observation and use the second-hand information provided by other nodes. This RMP protocol can run on any routing protocol to cope with misbehavior. In this paper work, we have tested for DSR routing protocol.( ie DSR with RMP). The efficiency of communication routes is tested over the node power consumption and developed a mechanism to optimize the power consumption in routing scheme.
In this paper work, a routing protocol called RMP (route management protocol) is implemented to cope with misbehavior operation in AdHoc network. It enables nodes to detect misbehavior by first-hand observation and use the second-hand information provided by other nodes. This RMP protocol can run on any routing protocol to cope with misbehavior. In this paper work, we have tested for DSR routing protocol.( ie DSR with RMP). The efficiency of communication routes is tested over the node power consumption and developed a mechanism to optimize the power consumption in routing scheme.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Aug 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

02/21/2013

pdf

text

original

 
RELIABLE ROUTING WITH OPTIMIZED POWER ROUTING FORWIRELESS ADHOC NETWORK
T.K.Shaik Shavali , Dr T. Bhaskara Reddy and Sk fairooz
Professor , Department of Computer Science, Lords institute of Engineering & Tech,Hyderabad-08, A.P. , INDIAE-mail:- ssvali786@yahoo.comDepartment of Computer Science & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapur-03, A.P.,INDIAE-mail:-bhaskarreddy_sku@yahoo.co.inAssociate Prof, Department of ECE, AHCET, Hyderabad-08, A.P. , INDIAE-mail:-fairoozsk@gmail.com
Abstract
In this paper work, a routing protocol called RMP(route management protocol) is implemented tocope with misbehavior operation in AdHocnetwork. It enables nodes to detect misbehavior byfirst-hand observation and use the second-handinformation provided by other nodes. This RMPprotocol can run on any routing protocol to copewith misbehavior. In this paper work, we havetested for DSR routing protocol.( ie DSR withRMP). The efficiency of communication routes istested over the node power consumption anddeveloped a mechanism to optimize the powerconsumption in routing scheme.Keyword: route management protocol, adhocnetwork, power optimization, network efficiency
I. INTRODUCTION
Wireless networking grows rapidly because of the human desires for mobility and for freedomfrom limitation, i.e., from physical connectionsto communication networks. A particular kind of wireless network called mobile ad hoc networksis presently under development. A mobile ad hocnetwork is a self-organizing and rapidlydeployable network in which neither a wiredbackbone nor a centralized control exists. Thenetwork nodes communicate with one anotherover scarce wireless channels in a multi-hopfashion. The ad hoc network is adaptable to thehighly dynamic topology resulted from themobility of network nodes and the changingpropagation conditions. These networks are usedin emergency disaster rescue operation, tacticalmilitary communication and law enforcement..Mobile ad hoc networks are also a goodalternative in rural areas or third world countrieswhere basic communication infrastructure is notwell establishedThe lack of infrastructure and organizationalenvironment of mobile ad hoc networks offerspecial opportunities to attackers. Misbehaviormeans deviation from normal routing andforwarding behavior. Without appropriatecountermeasures, the effects of misbehaviordramatically decrease network performance.Depending on the proportion of misbehavingnodes and their specific strategies, network throughput can be severely degraded, packetloss, nodes can be denied service, and thenetwork can be partitioned. These detrimentaleffects of misbehavior can endanger thefunctioning of the entire network. Minimizingenergy consumption is the important challenge inmobile networking. Wireless network interface isoften a device’s single largest power consumer.Since the network interface may often be idle,turning the radio off when not in use could savethis power. In practice, however, this approach isnot straightforward. A node must arrange to turnits radio on not just to send packets, but also toreceive packets addressed to it and to participate
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 201082http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
in any higher-level routing and control protocols.The requirement of cooperation between powersaving and routing protocols is particularly acutein the case of multi-hop ad hoc wirelessnetworks, where nodes must forward packets foreach other.
II. POWER OPTIMIZED ROUTINGSCHEME
The Topology Management in Ad hoc WirelessNetworks is deciding for every node:1.which node to turn on.2.when they turn on.3.At what transmit power.In power on-off scheduling topologymanagement schemes, few nodes, rich in power,are selected as cluster heads and gateways. Thesecluster head nodes are selected distributive insuch a way that each node in the ad hoc wirelessnetwork is either cluster head or connected (i.e.,in transmission range) to the cluster head and thegateway nodes are selected such that theyforward packets between cluster heads. Clusterheads and gateways form the virtual backbonefor routing in ad hoc networks. Some proposedpower on-off scheduling topology managementschemes are Span (3) and TMPO (TopologyManagement by Priority Ordering) (4). In span,some special coordinator node are selecteddistributive in such a way that two of thecoordinators neighbors can not reach each othereither directly or via one or two coordinators.This selection rule ensures the connectivity in adhoc network. Span runs over 802.11 ad hocpower saving mode, which has high broadcastoverhead. While TMPO assigns willingnessvalue to each node, based on the energy leveland speed of the node. A node with highwillingness value is selected as cluster head withhigh probability.Few power scheduling topology managementschemes are CBTM (Cone based DistributedTopology Management) and K-Neigh Protocolfor symmetric topology control (6). In CBTM,each node tries to find the minimum transmittingpower p such that transmitting with p ensuresthat in every cone of degree around each node,there is at least one neighbor node. Whereas inthe K-Neigh Protocol, each node adjusts itstransmission power, such that it has k or slightlyless than k one-hop neighbors, So that network connectivity is maintained under the conditionsof mobility. Most of the algorithms proposed forTopology Management follow either first twosteps or third step, i.e., switching between active(transmit, receive or idle) and sleep mode or thesecond step, i.e. adjusting the transmissionpower. We call them as power on-off schedulingand transmit power-scheduling algorithmsrespectively.Objective of this work is to design a topologymanagement scheme for ad hoc wirelessnetworks. A good power-saving topologymanagement scheme for wireless ad hocnetworks should have the followingcharacteristics:It should allow as many nodes as possible to turntheir radio receivers off most of the time becauseeven an idle radio in receive mode can consumealmost as much energy as an active transmitter.The algorithm for picking this backbone shouldbe distributed, requiring each node to make alocal Division.
III. PROPOSED TOPOLOGY MANAGEMENTSCHEME
In our topology management scheme, power(Mobile Agent with Routing Intelligence) nodesare selected in such a way that power nodes havethe maximum power level among their on hopneighbors and all non-power nodes are withinthe transmission range of power nodes. Thesepower nodes have the routing intelligence i.e.they make all decisions related to routing. Thegateway nodes having sufficient power level areselected so that they can forward packetsbetween power nodes. A gateway node does nothave routing intelligence. These power andgateway nodes stay continuously awake to routethe packets of other member nodes. The membernodes wake up a number of times in a beaconperiod T, and if they do not have to transmit orreceive data, they go to sleep mode again. Thewake up time for each node is calculated from apseudo-random number, such that power nodeand neighbor nodes know the wake up of thatnode time.Thus the member node can remain in powersaving sleep mode most of the time, if it is notactively sending or receiving packets. Thepackets are routed over the virtual backboneconsisting of power nodes and gateways. Theroutes are found with the help of mobile agents.The topology management scheme runs above theMAC layer and interacts with the routingprotocol. If a node has been asleep for a while,packets destined for it are not lost but are bufferedat a neighboring power node. When the nodeawakens, it can retrieve these packets from thebuffering power node. This topology managementschemes makes the routing simple, as only thoseentries in a node’s routing table that correspond to
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 201083http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
currently active power nodes can be used as validnext-hops (unless the next hop is the destinationitself).
Definition 1
Power
 
nodes are the nodes such thatall non-power nodes are connected to (i.e., intransmission range of) power nodes and routepacket for all other nodes with the help of mobileagents.
Definition 2
Sleep Cycle period is the timeperiod during which member nodes remain in thepower efficient sleep mode and wake up once forfixed time duration T.We assume that each node periodicallybroadcasts HAI messages that contains:Node’s id,Its status (i.e., whether the node is a powernode, gateway, member, undecided),Its current power level,Its current power node,A wakeup counter wi,Information about each neighbor i.e.Neighbor’s id,Its status,Its power node.Based on the HAI messages received fromneighbors, each node constructs a list of itsneighbors, their power nodes, power level,wakeup counter and information about theirneighbors.A node switches state from time to time betweenbeing a power node and being a member. A nodebecomes a gateway, if its power node chooses itas a gateway to route the packets between powernodes. It switches its state to undecided, if itlooses contact with its power node due tomobility. A node includes its current state in itsHAI messages. The following sections describethat it should withdraw from being a powernode, and how a power node selects itsgateways.
a) POWER MANAGEMENT
Power nodes along with gateways form thevirtual backbone, which is used for routing thisdemands for additional power for transmission,reception and processing of routing packets.Thus these power nodes should be selected insuch a way that they have enough power levelThe nodes in a the network periodically check among its one hop neighbors for maximumpower and declare themselves a node as power if it has maximum power. Power nodes select theneighboring nodes as its members and maintainthe list about its members. If more than oneneighbors of an undecided node become powerthen undecided node selects its power node fromwhich it has received the HAI packet earlier. If an undecided node has more power than powernode then it declares it self as power in the nextHAI packet.
b) POWER NODE WITHDRAWAL
Power node will drain its energy more rapidly, ascompared to member nodes. Before the powernode loses its major part of its power,responsibility of power node should betransferred to other node with sufficient powerlevel. Also power nodes should not be changedfrequently which will increase the overhead.Fig 1 nodes distributed in an network 
c) GATE WAY SELECTION
As the maximum number of hopsbetween any two close power nodes is two,gateways are required forward packets betweenpower nodes. Also as gateways need to receiveand transmit routing packets to and from powernodes, they should have sufficient amount of power.Power nodes periodically send broadcast requestpacket STAY-AWAKE to its members forsynchronization among members. Then it selectsa node as gateway, which has maximum powerand maximum power nodes as its neighbors. If any power nodes with in two hops have alreadydeclared their gateways, then there is no need toselect gate way again. Power level of thegateway is periodically checked by power and if it has less power than threshold, then powerstarts new gateway selection.
d) SLEEP CYCLE SCHEDULING:
We propose some additional powersaving features to 802.11 CSMA/CA to make theMAC layer power efficient by using randomizedwake up time for member nodes in ad hocnetwork. Power nodes and gatewayscontinuously stay awake to forward packets of other nodes. Member nodes wake up a number of times in a beacon period T (see figure) and if they do not have to transmit or receive data, they
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 201084http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->