currently active power nodes can be used as validnext-hops (unless the next hop is the destinationitself).
nodes are the nodes such thatall non-power nodes are connected to (i.e., intransmission range of) power nodes and routepacket for all other nodes with the help of mobileagents.
Sleep Cycle period is the timeperiod during which member nodes remain in thepower efficient sleep mode and wake up once forfixed time duration T.We assume that each node periodicallybroadcasts HAI messages that contains:Node’s id,Its status (i.e., whether the node is a powernode, gateway, member, undecided),Its current power level,Its current power node,A wakeup counter wi,Information about each neighbor i.e.Neighbor’s id,Its status,Its power node.Based on the HAI messages received fromneighbors, each node constructs a list of itsneighbors, their power nodes, power level,wakeup counter and information about theirneighbors.A node switches state from time to time betweenbeing a power node and being a member. A nodebecomes a gateway, if its power node chooses itas a gateway to route the packets between powernodes. It switches its state to undecided, if itlooses contact with its power node due tomobility. A node includes its current state in itsHAI messages. The following sections describethat it should withdraw from being a powernode, and how a power node selects itsgateways.
a) POWER MANAGEMENT
Power nodes along with gateways form thevirtual backbone, which is used for routing thisdemands for additional power for transmission,reception and processing of routing packets.Thus these power nodes should be selected insuch a way that they have enough power levelThe nodes in a the network periodically check among its one hop neighbors for maximumpower and declare themselves a node as power if it has maximum power. Power nodes select theneighboring nodes as its members and maintainthe list about its members. If more than oneneighbors of an undecided node become powerthen undecided node selects its power node fromwhich it has received the HAI packet earlier. If an undecided node has more power than powernode then it declares it self as power in the nextHAI packet.
b) POWER NODE WITHDRAWAL
Power node will drain its energy more rapidly, ascompared to member nodes. Before the powernode loses its major part of its power,responsibility of power node should betransferred to other node with sufficient powerlevel. Also power nodes should not be changedfrequently which will increase the overhead.Fig 1 nodes distributed in an network
c) GATE WAY SELECTION
As the maximum number of hopsbetween any two close power nodes is two,gateways are required forward packets betweenpower nodes. Also as gateways need to receiveand transmit routing packets to and from powernodes, they should have sufficient amount of power.Power nodes periodically send broadcast requestpacket STAY-AWAKE to its members forsynchronization among members. Then it selectsa node as gateway, which has maximum powerand maximum power nodes as its neighbors. If any power nodes with in two hops have alreadydeclared their gateways, then there is no need toselect gate way again. Power level of thegateway is periodically checked by power and if it has less power than threshold, then powerstarts new gateway selection.
d) SLEEP CYCLE SCHEDULING:
We propose some additional powersaving features to 802.11 CSMA/CA to make theMAC layer power efficient by using randomizedwake up time for member nodes in ad hocnetwork. Power nodes and gatewayscontinuously stay awake to forward packets of other nodes. Member nodes wake up a number of times in a beacon period T (see figure) and if they do not have to transmit or receive data, they
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 201084http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500