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Performance of Hybrid Routing Protocol for Adhoc Network under Bandwidth Constraints

Performance of Hybrid Routing Protocol for Adhoc Network under Bandwidth Constraints

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Published by ijcsis
An Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing protocols used inside ad hoc networks must be prepared to automatically adjust to an environment that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low band width, and low mobility with high bandwidth. In this paper, a bandwidth efficient multicast routing protocol for ad-hoc networks is presented. A hybrid routing protocol under bandwidth constraints (HRP-BC) has been proposed. The proposed protocol achieves low communication over head, and achieves high multicast efficiency this protocol has improved existing routing protocols by creating a mesh and providing multiple alternate routes. The protocol considered the following 1) Route setup as routing Distance of path, 2) Load at the node as traffic and 3) Bandwidth as queue length at the node. The proposed scheme utilizes the path information, traffic and bandwidth resource information at each node, for selection of route path, and compared to traditional DSR schemes. The simulation results shows that the proposed HRP-BC protocol achieves better performance to the DSR protocol for the maintenance overhead and the path reliability. It reduces congestion in network and improves bandwidth utilization. Thus provide efficient use of bandwidth in the ad hoc network.
An Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing protocols used inside ad hoc networks must be prepared to automatically adjust to an environment that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low band width, and low mobility with high bandwidth. In this paper, a bandwidth efficient multicast routing protocol for ad-hoc networks is presented. A hybrid routing protocol under bandwidth constraints (HRP-BC) has been proposed. The proposed protocol achieves low communication over head, and achieves high multicast efficiency this protocol has improved existing routing protocols by creating a mesh and providing multiple alternate routes. The protocol considered the following 1) Route setup as routing Distance of path, 2) Load at the node as traffic and 3) Bandwidth as queue length at the node. The proposed scheme utilizes the path information, traffic and bandwidth resource information at each node, for selection of route path, and compared to traditional DSR schemes. The simulation results shows that the proposed HRP-BC protocol achieves better performance to the DSR protocol for the maintenance overhead and the path reliability. It reduces congestion in network and improves bandwidth utilization. Thus provide efficient use of bandwidth in the ad hoc network.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
PERFORMANCE OF HYBRID ROUTING PROTOCOL FORADHOC NETWORK UNDER BANDWIDTH CONSTRAINTS
 
A K Daniel
Assistant ProfessorComputer Sc & Engg DepartmentM M M Engineering CollegeGORAKHPUR (U P) Indiadanielak@rediffmail.com
 
R Singh
Assistant ProfessorDepartment of CS & I TM J P Rohilkhand UniversityBAREILLY (U P) India
rsiet2002@gmail.com
 
J P Saini
PrincipalM M M Engineering CollegeGORAKHPUR (U P) IndiaJps_uptu@rediffmail.com
 
ABSTRACT:
An Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration.Routing protocols used inside ad hoc networks must be prepared to automatically adjust to an environment that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low band width, and low mobility with high bandwidth. In this paper, a bandwidth- efficient multicast routing protocol for ad-hoc networks is presented. A hybrid routing protocol under bandwidth constraints (HRP-BC) has been proposed. The proposed protocol achieves low communication over head, and achieves high multicast efficiency this protocol has improved existing routing protocols by creating a mesh and providing multiple alternate routes. The protocol considered the following 1) Route setup as routing Distance of path, 2) Load at the node as traffic and 3) Bandwidth as queue length at the node. The proposed scheme utilizes the path information,traffic and bandwidth resource information at each node, for selection of route path, and compared to traditional DSR schemes. The simulation results shows that the proposed HRP-BC protocol achieves better performance to the DSR protocol for the maintenance overhead and the path reliability. It reduces congestion in network and improves bandwidth utilization. Thus provide efficient use of bandwidth in the ad hoc network.
Keywords 
MANET 
, Proactive, Reactive, Hybrid, bandwidth
INTRODUCTION
An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobilenodes dynamically forming a temporary network withoutthe use of any exiting network infrastructures orcentralized administration. Ad-hoc networks are self-configuring and self-maintaining networks that allowdispensing of fixed infrastructures. The networks rely onnodes cooperation for providing packet routing. Ad-hocnetwork technology presents a great potential inapplication domains where infrastructure deployment isexpensive or not possible, like battlefield environments[1], transportation [2] or ambient intelligence scenarios[3]. Cornerstones of ad hoc networks are routingprotocols. These protocols are specifically designed topromote dissemination of routing information amongnetwork nodes. The goal is to allow the creation ofcommunication links between any two network nodesand responsible for enabling network communications.While exchanging information, the nodes may continueto move, so the network must be prepared to adaptcontinually [4][5][6]. The network infrastructurecomponent such as repeaters or base-stations willfrequently be either undesirable or not directlyreachable, the nodes must be prepared to organizethemselves into a network and establish routes amongthemselves without any outside support. In the simplestcases, the nodes may be able to communicate directlywith each other. However, ad hoc networks must alsosupport communication between nodes that are onlyindirectly connected by a series of hops through othernodes. In general, an ad hoc network looks like anetwork in which every mobile node is potentially arouter, and all nodes run a routing protocol[7][8].Unfortunately, standard routing algorithms work poorly ina mobile environment in which network topologychanges may be drastic and frequent as the individualmobile nodes move. Such protocols are specificallydesigned to work in absence of fixed infrastructures. Inorder to promote dissemination of routing information,nodes must cooperate and rely on each other to providerouting services. To allow the creation of communicationlinks between any two Network nodes, nodes canfunction both as end-hosts within each node’s radiorange, and as intermediate routers for other networknodes far apart[9][10]. A link is a one hop connectionbetween two nodes. A set of links enabling thecommunication between a source and a destinationdefines as multi-hop route. The applications runninginside network nodes communicate among them throughdata flows and. exchanging of different types of data
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
packets in side the network. In ad hoc mobile networks,routes are mainly multihop because of the limited radiopropagation range and topology changes frequently andunpredictably since each network host moves randomly.The routing protocols can be divided into two typesreactive and proactive. The Reactive routing protocolsfind a route on demand by flooding the network withRoute Request packets. Conversely, proactive routingprotocols maintain fresh lists of destinations and theirroutes by periodically distributing routing tables ,therefore routing is an integral part of ad hoccommunications, and has received interests from manyresearchers. Furthermore, the wireless channel is also ashared-access medium and the available bandwidth alsovaries with the number of hosts contending for thechannel. Due to its ease of deployment and nocentralized control unit, mobile nodes can connect witheach other in any form of network topology atanytime[11][12]. All mobile nodes serve as routers andmaintain the dynamic time-varying network topology. InMANETs, multicasting service plays an important role inbandwidth saving for some applications such asemergent events one to- one unicast transports.Without multicast capability, data Stream must besent to all receivers by multiple unicast connections.Several researches deal with this issue recently. Thenetwork utilization will become inefficient and much moretransmission and control overheads will be introduced[13]. There are many multicast protocols in traditionalwired networks such as Distance Vector MulticastRouting Protocol(DVMRP [14][15][16], Multicastextension to the Open Shortest Path First , Core BasedTrees (CBT) [17], Protocol Independent Multicast,.Core Based Tree (CBR) is a tree based multicastprotocol.[18] The main idea of this protocol is to find anearest forwarding node to replace with finding theshortest path between the source node and the receivingnode for decreasing the number of packet transmission.Multicast Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector RoutingProtocol (MAODV) [20] is a modified version of AODV[19]. In MAODV, each node of MANET must sendcontrol packets periodically to maintain the topology.Weight-Based Multicast Protocol is also a tree basedmulticast protocol Bandwidth-Efficient Multicast RoutingProtocol (BEMRP) [21]. However, it not only considersthe transmission hop but also considers the overheadof the forwarding path. Generally, the above schemesconsider the multi path connection at routing layer andleave the issue of reliable transmission being dealt withat upper layer.[22][23] Dynamic change in topologywith time in MANET gives ,several issues, such asprocessing overhead, packets collisions, and routemaintaining, need to be overcome Network populationand node density are important concerns for ad-hocnetworking; the higher the population and node density,the higher the probability to reach any network node[24][25] [26]. Ad hoc networks are thus conceived toease the entrance of new nodes. This property is theirbiggest strength as well as their main security weakness.In this paper, the proposed HRP-BM protocol deals withthe issue of reliable multicast to reduce the maintenanceoverhead increase the path stability, reducing thecongestion in mobile ad-hoc network and efficient use ofbandwidth. The proposed protocol requires only a smallnumber of control packets to setup and maintainmulticast routes as well as a small number of packettransmissions to deliver multicast packets to thereceivers, and has high multicast efficiency with lowcommunication overhead.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Theproblem statement is given in section II .The proposedmodel and algorithm to solve the problem is given insection III. The comparative results are discussed insection IV Finally, conclusions and future work arediscussed in Section V and VI respectively.
II.PROBLEM STATEMENT: ROUTING ANDBAND WIDTH MANAGEMENT IN ADHOCNETWORKS
Ad hoc network has emerged as one of the mostfocused research areas in the field of wireless networksand mobile computing. Ad hoc networks consist of hostscommunicating one another with portable radios Thebasic routing problem is that of finding an ordered seriesof intermediate nodes that can transport a packet acrossa network from its source to its destination by forwardingthe packet along the series of intermediate nodes. Intraditional hop-by-hop solutions to the routing problem,each node in the network maintains a routing table. Foreach known destination, the routing table lists the nextnode to which a packet for the destination should besent. The routing table at each node can be thought ofas part of a distributed data structure that, takentogether, represents the topology of the network. Thegoal of the routing protocol is to ensure that the overalldata structure contains a consistent and correct view ofthe actual network topology. If the routing tables at somenodes were to become inconsistent, then packets canloop in the network. If the routing tables were to containincorrect information, then packets can be dropped. Theproblem of maintaining a consistent and correct viewbecomes harder as there is an increase in the number ofnodes whose information must be consistent, and as therate of change in the true topology increases. Thechallenge in creating a routing protocol for Ad hocnetworks is to design a single protocol that can adapt tothe wide variety of conditions present inside ad hocnetworks. For example, the bandwidth available betweentwo nodes in the network may vary from more than 10Mbps, when using high-speed network interfaces withlittle interference, to 10 Kbps or less when using low-speed network interfaces or when there is significantinterference from outside sources or other nodes’
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transmitters. Similarly, nodes in an Ad hoc network mayalternate between periods when they are stationary withrespect to each other and periods when changetopology, rapidly conditions across a single network mayalso vary, so that some nodes are slow moving, whileothers change location rapidly. The routing protocol mustperform efficiently in environments in which nodes arestationary and bandwidth is not a limiting factor. Yet, thesame protocol must still function efficiently when thebandwidth available between nodes is low and the levelof mobility and topology change high. Because it is oftenimpossible to know a priori
 
what environment theprotocol will find itself in, and the environment canchange unpredictably, the routing protocol must be ableto adapt automatically. Most routing protocols include atleast some periodic behaviors, meaning that there areprotocol operations that are performed regularly at someinterval regardless of outside events. These periodicbehaviors typically limit the ability of the protocols toadapt to changing environments. If the periodic intervalis set too short, the protocol will be inefficient as itperforms its activities more often than required to reactto changes in the network topology. If the periodicinterval is set too long, the protocol will not reactsufficiently to changes in the network topology quicklyand lost packets Periodic protocols can be designed toadjust their periodic interval to try to match the rate ofchange in the network, but this approach will suffer fromthe overhead associated with the tuning mechanism andthe lag between a change in conditions and the selectionof a new periodic interval. In the worst case, whichconsists of bursts of topology change followed by stableperiods, adapting the periodic interval could result in theprotocol using a long interval during the burst periodsand a short interval in the stable periods. This worst casemay be fairly common, for example, as when a group ofpeople enter a room for a meeting, are seated for thecourse of the meeting, and then stand up to leave at theend. The alternative to a periodic routing protocol is onethat operates in an
on-demand 
fashion. On-demandprotocols are based on the premise that if a problem orinconsistent state can be detected before it causespermanent harm, then all work to correct a problem ormaintain consistent state can be delayed until it isproven to be needed. They operate using the same“lazy” philosophy as optimistic algorithms. The DynamicSource Routing protocol (DSR) is unique among thecurrent set of routing protocols for ad hoc networks inthe way it avoids periodic behavior, and in the way itsolves the routing information consistency problem. First,DSR is completely on-demand, which causes theoverhead of the protocol to automatically scale directlywith the need for reaction to topology change. Thisdramatically lowers the overhead of the protocol byeliminating the need for any periodic activities, such asthe route advertisement and neighbor detection packetsthat are present in other protocols. Second, DSR usessource routes to control the forwarding of packetsthrough the network. The key advantage of a sourcerouting design is that intermediate nodes do not need tomaintain consistent global routing information, since thepackets themselves already contain all the routingdecisions. Beyond this, the source route on each packetdescribes a path through the network. Therefore, with acost of no additional packets, every node overhearing asource route learns a way to reach all nodes listed onthe route [27] [28].
III DESIGN SPACE AND PROPOSEDALGORITHM
The proposed multicast routing protocol requires lowCommunication overhead since it does not requireperiodical transmission of control packets. Most of theexisting multicast routing protocols, such as DVMRP(Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol) [8] andFGMP (Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol) [9], requireperiodical transmission of control packets in order tomaintain multicast group membership and multicastroutes, thereby wasting a lot of bandwidth. In theproposed protocol, route setup and route recovery areinvoked only when they are required route setup processis invoked only when a new node joins a multicast group,and route recovery process is invoked only when amulticast route breaks due to the node movements.Further, in the route recovery process, control packetsused to recover multicast routes are flooded only tolimited network area scoped by TTL (time-to-live). In ourprotocol, bandwidth level at a node is used as TTL.Limiting the scope of route search further decreases thecommunication overhead since control packets are notflooded to the entire network but only to just previousnode (predecessor node)MAODV (Multicast Ad-hoc OnDemand Distance Vector) also tries to minimize thecommunication overhead by invoking the route discoveryprocess on-demand. However, unlike the proposedprotocol, MAODV ignores multicast efficiency.The proposed multicast routing protocol also achieveshigh multicast efficiency, i.e., it requires a small numberof multicast transmissions. Multicast transmission is keptminimal by keeping the number of forwarding nodessmall. Forwarding nodes are the nodes whichbroadcasts (forwards) multicast packets to neighboringnodes. Most of the existing multicast Routing protocolsuse unicast protocols such as DSDV (DestinationSequenced Distance Vector) and AODV (Ad hoc OnDemand Distance Vector) to select the shortest pathsfrom a source to each receiver. For example, in CBT(Core Based Tree) and PIM (Protocol IndependentMulticast) based protocols when a new node needs to join a multicast group, these unicast protocols are usedto set up the shortest path to a core . In FGMPforwarding nodes are selected along the shortest pathschosen by these unicast protocols. In multicast
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