Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Specifying And Validating Quality Characteristics For Academic Web-sites – Indian Origin

Specifying And Validating Quality Characteristics For Academic Web-sites – Indian Origin

Ratings: (0)|Views: 26 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
Every stakeholder of Academic Web-sites is mainly concerned with external quality, viz., usability, functionality, and reliability. Signore and Olsina have given hierarchical quality characteristics for measuring quality of Web-sites, especially for e-commerce and museum domains. In this paper, the authors have proposed a hierarchical model of attributes, sub-attributes, and metrics for measuring external quality of academic Websites – Indian origin. The theoretical validation of model has been carried out using distance measure construction method. The empirical validation is in progress and will be reported soon.
Every stakeholder of Academic Web-sites is mainly concerned with external quality, viz., usability, functionality, and reliability. Signore and Olsina have given hierarchical quality characteristics for measuring quality of Web-sites, especially for e-commerce and museum domains. In this paper, the authors have proposed a hierarchical model of attributes, sub-attributes, and metrics for measuring external quality of academic Websites – Indian origin. The theoretical validation of model has been carried out using distance measure construction method. The empirical validation is in progress and will be reported soon.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Aug 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/12/2014

pdf

text

original

 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
Specifying And Validating Quality CharacteristicsFor Academic Web-sites – Indian Origin
Ritu Shrivastava
 Department of Computer Science and EngineeringSagar Institute of Research Technology & Science Bhopal 462007, India
J. L. Rana
 Retired Professor, Department of Computer Science and  Engineering Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology Bhopal 462002, India
M Kumar 
Prof. & Dean, Department of Computer Science and EngineeringSagar Institute of Research & Technology Bhopal 462007, India
 Abstract
 
Every stakeholder of Academic Web-sites is mainlyconcerned with external quality, viz., usability, functionality, andreliability. Signore and Olsina have given hierarchical qualitycharacteristics for measuring quality of Web-sites, especially fore-commerce and museum domains. In this paper, the authorshave proposed a hierarchical model of attributes, sub-attributes,and metrics for measuring external quality of academic Web-sites – Indian origin. The theoretical validation of model has beencarried out using distance measure construction method. Theempirical validation is in progress and will be reported soon.
 Keywords-component; Web-site Quality, Academic domain, Hierarchical model, Attributes, Metrics
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
World Wide Web (WWW) has been the fasted adoptedtechnology. Every day many new Web-sites are uploaded onWeb. Often quality of Web-sites is unsatisfactory and basicWeb principles like inter-portability and accessibility areignored [1,2]. The main reason for lack of quality isunavailability of trained staff in Web technologies/engineeringand orientation of Web towards a more complex XML basedarchitecture [1,2,3].Web-sites can be categorized as informative or cultural, e-commerce, e-government, museums, tourism, and academicintensive. It is obvious that domains differ significantly, andhence a common yardstick can not be applied to measurequality of all Web-sites. Loranca et. al. [4] and Olsina et. al. [5]have identified attributes, sub-attributes, and metrics for e-commerce based Web-sites. Olsina et. al. [6] have alsospecified metrics for Web-sites of museums. Tripathi andKumar [7] have specified quality characteristics for e-commerce based Web-sites of Indian origin from external pointof view.The aim of this research is to identify attributes, sub-attributes, and metrics for measuring quality of AcademicInstitute Web-sites (Indian Origin) from point of view of usability, and to theoretically validate the proposed model.II.
 
L
ITRATURE
S
URVEY
The quality of software being developed has always been prime concern of software engineers. Some widely usedsoftware quality models were proposed by Boehm et. al. [8],and McCall and Covano [9]. Complexity is probably the mostimportant attribute of software because it influences a number of other attributes such as maintainability, understandability,modifiability, and testability.International bodies such as ISO and CEN(European) aretrying to integrate different approaches to the definition of quality, starting from the awareness that the quality as anattribute which changes developer’s perspective and actioncontext [10]. The ISO/IEC 9126 model [10] defines threeviews of quality: user’s view, developer’s view, and manager’sview. Users are interested in the quality in use (external qualityattributes), while developers are interested in internal qualityattributes such as maintainability, portability, etc.. This modelis hierarchical and contains six major quality attributes eachvery broad in nature. They are subdivided into 27 sub-attributesthat contribute to external quality and 21 sub-attributes thatcontribute to internal quality. The users are interested inexternal quality, viz., usability, functionality, reliability, andefficiency of Web-sites. These attributes and sub-attributes inISO 9126 are of very general in nature and can be applied toWeb-sites as well.Olsina et. al.[5,6] have proposed hierarchical model of attributes, sub-attributes and metric for Web-sites of museumand e-commerce domains. They have also developed atechnique called QEM to measure quality of these sites [5].Tripathi and Kumar [7] have identified attributes, sub-attributesand metrics for Indian origin e-commerce Web-sites. Theyhave validated the proposed quality characteristic model boththeoretically and empirically [11]. In this research we are
107http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
 proposing a hierarchical model of attributes and sub-attributesto measure quality of academic institute Web-sites of Indianorigin. The model is also theoretically validated.III.
 
PROPOSED
Q
UALITY CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
 In fact, software artifacts are generally produced to satisfyspecific user’s need, and Web-sites are no exception. Indesigning Web-sites care should be taken that a user enteringfor the first time at a given home page should be able to find a piece of information quickly. For this, there are attributes likesite map, an index, or a table of contents that help in gettingquick global site understanding that facilitates browsing.Alternatively, a global searching function on the home pagecould help retrieving required piece of information and avoid browsing. The site understandability increases if both thefunctions are included. The main attributes that enhance theWeb-site external quality are usability, functionality, andreliability. A quality attribute can be decomposed into multiplelevels of sub-attributes and finally a sub-attribute can berefined in a set of measurable attributes or metrics. The proposed hierarchical model of metrics to measure externalquality of academic Web-sites is given in Fig. 1.It is necessary that any new model of attributes, sub-attributes and metrics is properly validated before it is put touse by professionals and academia. The process of validation isdescribed in the next section.IV.
 
THEORETICAL
 
VALIDATION
 
OF
 
PROPOSED
 
HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF METRICSRecent software engineering literature has shown a concernfor the quality of methods to validate software productmetrics (e.g., see [12][13][14]). This concern is due to factthat: (i) common practices for the validation of softwareengineering metrics are not acceptable on scientific grounds,and (ii) valid measures are essential for effectivesoftware project management and sound empirical research.According to Kitchenham et al. [13] "unless the softwaremeasurement community can agree ona valid, consistent, andcomprehensive theory of measurement validation, we have noscientific basis for the discipline of software measurement, asituation potentially disastrous for both practice and research."Therefore, to have confidence in the utility of the many metricsthose are proposed from research labs, it is crucial that they arevalidated.The validation of software product metrics means
1
 
Usability
1.1.
 
Global Site understandability1.1.1
 
Site Map(location map)
1.1.2
 
Table of Content 
1.1.3
 
 Alphabetical Index
1.1.4
 
Campus Image Map
1.1.5
 
Guided Tour 
1.2.
 
On-line Feedback and Help Features1.2.1
 
Student Oriented Help
1.2.2
 
Search Help
1.2.3
 
Web-site last Update Indicator 
1.2.4
 
 E-mail Directory
1.2.5
 
Phone Directory
1.2.6
 
FAQ
1.2.7
 
On-line Feedback in form of Questionnaire
1.3.
 
Interface and Aesthetic Features1.3.1
 
 Link Color Style Uniformity
1.3.2
 
Global Style Uniformity
1.3.3
 
What is New Feature
1.3.4
 
Grouping of Main Control Objects
2
 
Functionality
2.1.
 
Search Mechanism2.1.1
 
People Search
2.1.2
 
Course Search
2.1.3
 
 Academic Department Search
2.1.4
 
Global Search
2.2.
 
 Navigation and Browsing2.2.1
 
Path Indicator 
2.2.2
 
Current Position Indicator 
2.2.3
 
 Average Links Per Page
2.2.4
 
Vertical Scrolling
2.2.5
 
 Horizontal Scrolling
2.3.
 
Student-Oriented Features
 
2.3.1 Academic Infrastructure Information2.3.1.1
 
 Library Information
2.3.1.2
 
 Laboratory Information
2.3.1.3
 
 Research Facility Information
2.3.1.4
 
Central Computing Facility Information
2.3.2 Student Service Information2.3.2.1
 
 Hostel Facility Information
2.3.2.2
 
Sport Facilities
2.3.2.3
 
Canteen Facility Information
2.3.2.4
 
Scholarship Information
2.3.2.5
 
 Doctor/Medical Facility Information
2.3.3 Academic Information2.3.3.1
 
Courses Offered Information
2.3.3.2
 
 Academic Unit (Department) Information
2.3.3.3
 
 Academic Unit t Site Map
2.3.3.4
 
Syllabus Information
2.3.3.5
 
Syllabus Search
2.3.4 Enrollment Information2.3.4.1
 
 Notification uploaded 
2.3.4.2
 
Form Fill/Download 
2.3.5 Online Services2.3.5.1
 
Grade/ Result Information
2.3.5.2
 
Fee dues/Deposit Information
2.3.5.3
 
 News Group Services
3
 
Reliability
3.1.
 
Link and Other Errors3.1.1
 
 Dangling Links
3.1.2
 
 Invalid Links
3.1.3
 
Unimplemented Links
3.1.4
 
 Browser Difference Error 
3.1.5
 
Unexpected Under Construction Pages
4
 
Efficiency
4.1
 
Performance4.1.1
 
 Matching of Link Title and Page Information
4.1.2
 
Support for Text only Version
4.1.3
 
Global Readability
4.1.4
 
 Multilingual Support 
Fig. 1 Quality Characteristics For Academic Institute Web-sites
108http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010
convincingly demonstrating that :1. The product metrics measures what it purports tomeasure. For example, that a coupling metrics really measurescoupling.2. The product metric is associated with some importantexternal metric (such as measures of maintainability or reliability).3. The product metric is an improvement over existing product metrics. An improvement can mean, for example,that it is easier to collect the metric or that it is a better  predictor of faults.According to Fenton [15], there are two types of validationthat are recognized: internal and external. Internal validationis a theoretical exercise that ensures that the metric is a proper numerical characterization of the property it claims tomeasure. Demonstrating that a metric measures what it purports to measure is a form of theoretical validation.External validation involves empirically demonstrating points(2) and (3) above. Internal and external validations are alsocommonly referred to as theoretical and empirical validationrespectively [13]. Both types of validation arenecessary. The approaches used in two validations are shownin Figure 2.The main goal of theoretical validation is to assesswhether a metric actually measures what it purports tomeasure [15]. In the context of an empirical study, thetheoretical validation of metrics establishes their constructvalidity, i.e. it ‘proves’ that they are valid measures for theconstructs that are used as variables in the study. There isnot yet a standard, accepted way of theoretically validatingsoftware metric. Work on theoretical validation has followedtwo paths (see Fig 2), viz.
Measurment-theory based approach such asthose proposed by Whitmire[16], Zuse[17], andPoels and Dedene [18]
Property-based approach (also calledaxiomatic approaches), such as proposed byWeyuker and Braind et al.[19]For the theoretical validation DISTANCE framework  proposed by Poels and Dedene[18], is a conceptualframework for software metric validation grounded inmeasurement theory. This is briefly described below :
 A. The DISTANCE Measure Construction Procedure
 The measure construction procedure prescribes fiveactivities. The procedure is triggered by a request to constructa measure for a property that characterizes the element of some set of objects. The activities of the DISTANCE procedure are given here. For notational convenience, let P be a set of objects that are characterized by some property pty for which a measure needs to be constructed.
1) Finding a measurement abstraction:
The objectof interest must be modeled in such a way that the propertyfor which a measure is needed is emphasized. A suitablerepresentation, called measurement abstraction hereafter,should allow to what extent an object is characterized by the property to be observed. By comparing measurementabstraction we should be able to tell whether an object ismore, equally or less characterized by the property than other object.
2)
Defining distance between measurement abstraction:This activity is based on a generic definition of distance thathold for elements in a set. To define distance betweenelements in a set, the concept of ‘elementary transformationfunction’ is used.
3) Quantifying distance betweenmeasurement abstraction:
This activity requires the definition of adistance measure for the element of M. Basically thismeans that the distance defined in the previous activity arenow quantified by representing i.e. measuring them as thenumber of elementary transformation by representing i.e.measuring them as the number of elementarytransformations in the shortest sequence of elementarytransformation between elements. Formally, the activityresults in the definition of a metric MxM
R that can beused to map the distance between a pair of elements in Mto a real number.
4) Finding a reference abstraction:
This activityrequire a kind of thought experiment. We need todetermine what the measurement abstraction for the objectin P would look like if they were characterized by thetheoretical lowest amount pty. If such a hypotheticalmeasurement abstraction can be found, then this object iscalled the reference abstraction for P with respect to pty.
5) Defining a measure for the property:
The finalactivity consists of defining a measure for pty. Since properties are formally defined as distances, andthese distances are quantified with a metric function,the formal outcome of this activity is the definition of afunction
μ
:P
R such that p
Є
P:
μ
(p)=
δ
(abs(p), ref(p)).
 B. Metric Validation
METRICDEFINITIONTHEORETICALVALIDATIONEMPIRICALVALIDATION
PropertyBasedApproachMeasurement Theory basedExperimentsCaseStudiesSurveys
Fig. 2 Approaches to Software Metrics Validation
109http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->