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Media Streaming using Multiple Description Coding in Overlay Networks

Media Streaming using Multiple Description Coding in Overlay Networks

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper we examine the performance of two types of Overlay networks i.e. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) & Content Delivery Network (CDN) media streaming using Multiple Description Coding (MDC). In both the approaches many servers simultaneously serve one requesting client with complementary descriptions. This approach improves reliability and decreases the data rate a server has to provide. We have implemented both approaches in the ns-2 network simulator. The experimental results indicate that the performance of Multiple Description Coding-based media streaming in case of P2P network is better than CDN.
In this paper we examine the performance of two types of Overlay networks i.e. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) & Content Delivery Network (CDN) media streaming using Multiple Description Coding (MDC). In both the approaches many servers simultaneously serve one requesting client with complementary descriptions. This approach improves reliability and decreases the data rate a server has to provide. We have implemented both approaches in the ns-2 network simulator. The experimental results indicate that the performance of Multiple Description Coding-based media streaming in case of P2P network is better than CDN.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.4, 2010
Media Streaming using Multiple Description Codingin Overlay Networks
Sachin Yadav Ranjeeta Yadav Shailendra MishraDepartment of CSE Department of ECE Department of CSESGIT College of Engineering SGIT College of Engineering Kumaon Engineering CollegeGhaziabad, India Ghaziabad, India Dwarahat, Indiasac.yaduvanshi@gmail.comranjeeta29@gmail.comskmishra1@gmail.com 
 Abstract 
 — 
In this paper we examine the performance of twotypes of Overlay networks i.e. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) & ContentDelivery Network (CDN) media streaming using MultipleDescription Coding (MDC). In both the approaches many serverssimultaneously serve one requesting client with complementarydescriptions. This approach improves reliability and decreasesthe data rate a server has to provide. We have implemented bothapproaches in the ns-2 network simulator. The experimentalresults indicate that the performance of Multiple DescriptionCoding-based media streaming in case of P2P network is betterthan CDN.
 
 Keywords- MDC; CDN; Video Streaming; P2P; Overlay Network
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Media streaming received lot of attention in the past fewyears. As a consequence, live and on-demand media streamingis today widely used to stream TV & radio channels, TVshows, or arbitrary audio & video media. During this timeseveral approaches have been devised to tackle the media-streaming problem. The first one is to use a client-servermodel, where a single server is the media provider andmultiple clients are the media consumers. The second one is touse a peer-to-peer approach where the clients help the serverin delivering the media content by having the roles of consumers and providers at the same time.Both schemes have their advantages anddisadvantages. The client-server approach has the advantagethat the client receives the content directly from the serverwith the minimum delay but at the cost of overwhelming theserver in particular situations (for instance at high rate hours:
e.g. football / basketball games etc). As a result, the server’s
bandwidth can quickly become a bottleneck in the system dueto the large number of client requests. On the other hand, inthe peer-to-peer approach algorithms are devised to multicastthe content between clients. In this case the clients have anactive role in distributing the media content to other clientsand thus remove the pressure from the server node. In thisway, scaling the system functionality to a large number of consumers becomes a reality. However, this solution has itsdrawbacks too. Specifically, these algorithms have to tackle ahigh dynamic system, where clients can come and leavesuddenly without any prior knowledge or guarantees.
Today’s video streaming systems are mostly based on the
client server model of Content Delivery Networks (CDN)which leads to several problems. The most important ones are:
1.
 
Flash Crowd:
Large numbers of streaming servers are notable to feed more than a few hundred streaming sessionssimultaneously [2].
2.
 
 Bandwidth cost:
 
It can be a significant problem to thecontent provider. In contrast, these costs are shared byevery participant in the P2P streaming network.
3.
 
Single Point of failure:
Like any client-server model, theserver is the single point of failure.P2P networks offer characteristics and possibilities whichcannot be provided by CDNs as proposed in [10]. As we showin this work, the performance of media streaming can he betterin a P2P network, although the probability that one streambreaks is higher [13] [4]. The reason for this is that thereplication rate of the video streams in a P2P network istypically significantly higher than in a CDN, due to the largenumber of participating hosts. In Gnutella for example, everypeer shares an average of 500 files [15] and many peers hostthe same file.Figure 1: Distributed video streaming using multipledescription coding in a P2P network. Peer P1 is
136http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.4, 2010
simultaneously serve by the closest available peers P6 & P3with descriptions D1 & D2 respectively.Using MDC in a P2P streaming scenario is illustrated inFigure 1. Peer p1 wants to receive video file S which isavailable in the MDC format on p3, p5 and p6. In this examplethe video is encoded using two descriptions D1 & D2. Peersp3 and p6 are chosen based on the distance from server to thereceiver, and they simultaneously serve the video file S, eachone providing a complementary description. If both thedescriptions are received at the receiving peer p1, it willexperience the highest quality. If any of the descriptions areaffected by packet loss or excessive delay, the receiver canstill decode and display video S but at the expense of adegradation of the quality, as the descriptions areindependently decodable.II.
 
M
ULTIPLE
D
ESCRIPTION
V
IDEO
C
ODING
 Multiple Description coding (MDC) is acodingtechnique that fragments a singlemedia streaminto
n
substreams (
n
 
2) referred to as descriptions. Thepacketsof eachdescription are routed over multiple, (partially) disjoint paths.In order to decode the media stream, any description can beused, however, the quality improves with the number of descriptions received in parallel. The idea of MDC is toprovide error resilience to media streams. Since an arbitrarysubset of descriptions can be used to decode the originalstream, network congestion or packet loss
 — 
which arecommon inbest-effort networkssuch as theInternet
 — 
willnot interrupt the stream but only cause a (temporary) loss of quality. The quality of a stream can be expected to be roughlyproportional to data rate sustained by the receiver.Figure 2: MD source coding with two channels and threereceivers. The general case has M channels and 2
M
1
receivers.This property makes MDC highly suitable for lossy packetnetworks where there is no prioritization among the packets.The principle of MDC encoding/decoding is illustrated infigure 2. For a general overview on Multiple DescriptionCoding (MDC) refer to [1].III.
 
V
IDEO
S
TREAMING
O
VER
I
NTERNET
 Media streaming systems are distinct from the file sharingsystems [11], in which a client has to download the entire filebefore using it. Real-time multimedia, as the name implies,has timing constraints. For example, audio and video datamust be played out continuously. If the data does not arrive intime, the play out process will pause, which is annoying tohuman ears and eyes. Real-time transport of live video orstored video is the predominant part of real-time multimedia.In this paper, we are concerned with video streaming, whichrefers to real-time transmission of stored video. There are twomodes for transmission of stored video over the Internet,namely the download mode and the streaming mode (i.e.,video streaming). In streaming mode, the video content neednot be downloaded in full, but is being played out while partsof the content are being received and decoded. Due to its real-time nature, video streaming typically has bandwidth, delayand loss requirements. However, the current best-effortInternet does not offer any quality of service (QoS) guaranteesto streaming video over the Internet. In addition, for multicast,it is difficult to efficiently support multicast video whileproviding service flexibility to meet a wide range of QoSrequirements from the users. Thus, designing mechanisms andprotocols for Internet streaming video poses many challenges.It has been demonstrated in [16] that using MDC incombination with packet path diversity significantly improvesthe robustness of a real-time video application.Figure 3: Architecture for video streaming.In Figure 3, raw video and audio data are pre-compressedby video compression and audio compression algorithms and
then saved in storage devices. Upon the client’s request, a
streaming server retrieves compressed video/audio data fromstorage devices and then the application-layer QoS controlmodule adapts the video/audio bit-streams according to thenetwork status and QoS requirements. After the adaptation, thetransport protocols packetize the compressed bit-streams andsend the video/audio packets to the Internet. Packets may bedropped or experience excessive delay inside the Internet dueto congestion. To improve the quality of video/audiotransmission, continuous media distribution services (e.g.,caching) are deployed in the Internet. For packets that aresuccessfully delivered to the receiver, they first pass throughthe transport layers and are then processed by the applicationlayer before being decoded at the video/audio decoder. Toachieve synchronization between video and audiopresentations, media synchronization mechanisms arerequired. From Figure 3, it can be seen that the six areas areclosely related and they are coherent constituents of the videostreaming architecture.IV.
 
M
ODELLING
 We use the following methodologies in our simulations toreflect the real-world network situations.
137http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.4, 2010
1. Modeling Availability in P2P Networks
In P2P networks, peer and content availability poses achallenging problem to be solved. Availability of a peer in aP2P network is quite unpredictable, depending primarily onhuman presence. In our experiments we model peeravailability as a 2 state markov process, having the states ONand OFF. The average lifetime of a peer in a Gnutella network is found to be about 30 minutes [14]. For our experiments wetake a Gaussian distribution of ON time, which has a mean of 30 minutes. To model the availability of content among thepeers, we randomly choose peers having a particular mediafile. We vary the percentage of peers having the file from 5%to 50%.
2. Server Placement in CDN 
The server placement problem addresses how to optimallyplace a number of servers in order to maximize the quality atthe end user. In our experiments we varied the number of servers to obtain measurement of Quality of Service, such aspacket loss and response time. For a particular number of servers, we placed the servers randomly in the network andmeasured the average round-trip-time from each user to theservers. We performed this random placement 10 times andchose the one yielding the smallest average round-trip-time.
3. Server Selection in P2P and CDN Network 
The server selection problem addresses how to optimallychoose a pair of servers to get complementary descriptions inorder to maximize the perceived quality at the receiver. Asdescribed in [10] Apostolopoulos proposed a path diversitymodel which requires the knowledge of network topology,including knowledge of joint and disjoint links, and losscharacteristics for each link. In our experiments we simplychoose the closest two servers for each client request. For P2Pcase, we choose the closest two serving peers having therequired content.
4. Content Distribution across Servers in CDN 
This problem addresses how to optimally distribute theMultiple Description streams in an existing set of servers. Inthis paper we assume that all the CDN servers contain both thedescriptions, which simplifies the server selection problem bymerely choosing the two closest servers.
5. Network Load 
To simulate the network load, we created random TCPconnections originating from arbitrary nodes, on the average 3new connections per second, each connection lasting for 1minute.V.
 
R
ESULTS
 We implemented both the P2P and CDN approacheswithin the Network Simulator ns-2 [8]. The topology wascreated using the GT-ITM topology generation tool with thetransit-stub model, having 100 nodes. A video file of 1 minuteduration, having a data-rate of 100 Kbit/s was selected for allthe simulations. Each packet contains 1000 bytes. In both theCDN and P2P based systems, there is one new request everysecond, originating from an arbitrary node. In P2P network,the file is streamed from two closest available peer nodes withcomplementary descriptions, whereas in CDN, the same isserved by two closest CDN servers. It was assumed that a peercan serve only one request at one time, while a CDN servercan serve a maximum of 200 streams simultaneously.Figure 4: Performance of P2P and CDN networks using MDC:(top) packet loss rate varies with varying number of CDNservers and content availability in p2p network. (middle)number of decodable frames increases with increasing numberof servers and availability. (bottom) average response timesfor P2P and CDN.Figure 4 shows the results obtained through simulations. Threeperformance parameters, namely the rate of packet loss,number of non-decodable frames and the average responsetime, i.e. the time to receive the first video packet after therequest has been sent, are compared for P2P and CDNnetworks. For the count of non-decodable frames, it isassumed that the descriptions contain an Intra frame once inevery second, and in case of a packet loss for the P-frames, allthe subsequent frames become non-decodable, until the next I-frame is received. Because of MDC coding, the receiver canstill view with a reduced frame rate, unless both thedescriptions are corrupted simultaneously. This is shown infigure 5, where description s1 contains a packet loss, but s2 isreceived error-free. The receiver can view with ½ the originalframe rate until the next I-frame is received in s1.
138http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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