entioned mechanisms and also provides security for the datatransmitting.III. OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLESA. MAODVMAODV is the multicast extension of AODV. BothAODV and MAODV are routing protocols for ad-hocnetworks, with AODV for unicast traffic and MAODV formulticast traffic. MAODV allows each node in the network tosend out multicast data packets, and the multicast data packetsare broadcast when propagating along the multicast group tree.Message Formats of MAODVEach multicast group has a unique multicast groupaddress. According to the MAODV specification, eachmulticast group is organized using tree structure, composed of the group members and non group members. The nodes whichare non group members that help in routing the data must existin the tree to connect the group members. Associated with eachmulticast tree, the group member that first constructs the tree isthe group leader for that tree, responsible for maintaining thegroup tree by periodically broadcasting Group-Hello (GRPH)messages in the whole network. The group leader alsomaintains the group sequence number, which is propagated inthe network through the GRPH.Each node in the network may maintain three tables.
Unicast Route Table
recording the next hop forroutes to other destinations for unicast traffic.
Multicast Route Table
, listing the next hops for thetree structure of each multicast group. Each entryrepresents one group tree structure. Every node thatbelongs to that group tree should maintain suchentries, with its own identity as group leader, groupmember, or router (non-multicast member that is inthe tree to provide connectivity). Every next hop isassociated with direction either downstream orupstream. If the next hop is one-hop nearer to thegroup leader, the direction is upstream; otherwise,the direction is downstream. The group leader has noupstream, while other nodes in the tree should haveone and only one upstream.
Group Leader Table
. It records the currently-known multicast group address with its group leaderaddress and the next hop towards that group leaderwhen a node receives a periodic GRPH message. Itincludes the function of the
Route Request (RREQ) Message Format is given in figure 1.
0 1 2 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1Type J|R|G| Reserved | Hop Count || Other fields as specified for AODV.......Figure 1. Route Request (RREQ) Message Format
Join flag; set when source node wants to join amulticast group.R
Repair flag; set when a node wants to initiate a repairto connect two previously disconnected portions of themulticast tree.Route Reply (RREP) Message Format is given in figure 2.
0 1 2 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1| Type |R| Reserved |Prefix Sz| Hop Count || Other fields as specified for AODV.......Figure 2. Route Reply (RREP) Message Format
Repair flag; set when a node is responding to a repairrequest to connect two previously disconnectedportions of the multicast tree.When the RREP is sent for a multicast destination, theMulticast Group Information extension is appended. MulticastActivation (MACT) Message Format is given in figure 3.
0 1 2 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1| Type |J|P|G|U|R| Reserved | Hop Count || Multicast Group IP address || Source IP address || Source Sequence Number |Figure 3. Multicast Activation (MACT) Message Format
MACT message contains the following fields:Type
Join flag; set when a node is joining the multicastgroup, as opposed to finding a route to the group forthe transmission of data messages.P
Prune flag; set when a node wishes to prune itself fromthe tree, unset when the node is activating a tree link.G
Group Leader flag; set by a multicast tree member thatfails to repair a multicast tree link breakage, and
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010142http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500