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Secured and QoS based multicast routing in MANETs

Secured and QoS based multicast routing in MANETs

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Published by ijcsis
A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic network of self controlled mobile nodes without any centralized co-ordinator (access point or base station) or wired infrastructure. The main difficulty in designing a routing protocol for MANETs is the dynamical topology which results from the random movement of mobile nodes within the source’s transmission range. MANET, which is fundamentally different from conventional infrastructure based networks, is self-configuring and formed directly by a set of mobile nodes. In MANET, the heterogeneity of networks and destinations makes it difficult to improve bandwidth utilization and service flexibility. Therefore, mobility of nodes makes the design of data distribution jobs greatly challenging. The wide use of multiparty conferences in MANETs leads to multicast routing for the transmission of information, such as video and other streaming data. In multicasting quality of service (QoS) and security are the leading challenges. The QoS deals with bandwidth utilization and network failures and security provides group communication to be confidential. In this paper MAODV protocol is modified by including QoS as well as security to the group communication. The QoS includes the link failures and the node failures. The security is provided by using symmetric key encryption method.
A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic network of self controlled mobile nodes without any centralized co-ordinator (access point or base station) or wired infrastructure. The main difficulty in designing a routing protocol for MANETs is the dynamical topology which results from the random movement of mobile nodes within the source’s transmission range. MANET, which is fundamentally different from conventional infrastructure based networks, is self-configuring and formed directly by a set of mobile nodes. In MANET, the heterogeneity of networks and destinations makes it difficult to improve bandwidth utilization and service flexibility. Therefore, mobility of nodes makes the design of data distribution jobs greatly challenging. The wide use of multiparty conferences in MANETs leads to multicast routing for the transmission of information, such as video and other streaming data. In multicasting quality of service (QoS) and security are the leading challenges. The QoS deals with bandwidth utilization and network failures and security provides group communication to be confidential. In this paper MAODV protocol is modified by including QoS as well as security to the group communication. The QoS includes the link failures and the node failures. The security is provided by using symmetric key encryption method.

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Secured and QoS based multicast routingin MANETs
 Maya Mohan S.Mary Saira Bhanu
 Department of CSE Department of CSE  NSS College of Engineering National Institute of Technology
Palakkad, Kerala. Thiruchirappalli, TN.mayajeevan@gmail.com msb@nitt.edu
 
 Abstract-
A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a dynamicnetwork of self controlled mobile nodes without any centralizedco-ordinator (access point or base station) or wiredinfrastructure. The main difficulty in designing a routing protocolfor MANETs is the dynamical topology which results from therandom movement of 
mobile nodes within the source’s
transmission range. MANET, which is fundamentally differentfrom conventional infrastructure based networks, is self-configuring and formed directly by a set of mobile nodes. InMANET, the heterogeneity of networks and destinations makes itdifficult to improve bandwidth utilization and service flexibility.Therefore, mobility of nodes makes the design of data distribution jobs greatly challenging. The wide use of multiparty conferencesin MANETs leads to multicast routing for the transmission of information, such as video and other streaming data. Inmulticasting quality of service (QoS) and security are the leadingchallenges. The QoS deals with bandwidth utilization andnetwork failures and security provides group communication tobe confidential. In this paper MAODV protocol is modified byincluding QoS as well as security to the group communication.The QoS includes the link failures and the node failures. Thesecurity is provided by using symmetric key encryption method.
 Key Words- multicast; MANET; QoS; security;
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONA mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that forms a dynamic network withoutany centralized coordinator. The highlighted application areasof MANETs are rescue sites, battlefields, group conferencesetc. Communication in MANETs is provided by a sequence of neighbor nodes from a source to a destination form a path andintermediate mobile nodes relay packets in a store-and
 – 
forward mode. Some typical applications of MANETs, nodesneed to accomplish a task by group. Therefore, themulticasting plays a significant role in the MANETs.Multicasting reduces the communication cost for applicationsthat sends the same data to many recipients. It reduces thechannel bandwidth, processing time between sender and routerand delivery delay by sending the data simultaneously todifferent recipients instead of multiple unicasts. In addition, itgives robust communication whereby the receiver address isunknown or modified without the knowledge of the sourcewithin the wireless environment [1].Network researches have been done in the area of quality of service (QoS) and security with few exceptions.However, security [25] impacts the overall network QoS asmore security usually means more message overhead forauthentication and other security functions, as well asadditional delays imposed due to overhead caused byencryption, etc. This is especially true in an ad- hoc network environment where security mechanisms [5] such asauthentication services are proposed to protect thecommunication on open medium in wireless networks, thusintroducing overhead that affect the QoS of communicationssignificantly. It is therefore essential to consider both securityand QoS together when designing protocols for ad- hocenvironments as one impact the other. Very little work has beendone on the interaction between security and QoS in wirelessnetworks.In this paper an effort has been taken in order toprovide security as well as quality of service for groupcommunication. QoS [4] includes handling node failures, link failures and finding the path when node mobility occurs andstoring the data while unavailability of paths. It also saves thebandwidth by using less control messages by includingsymmetric key encryption while compared with asymmetrickey encryption.In ad- hoc networks, users need to assure the partywho supposedly sent a message to another party is indeed thelegitimate party. Otherwise, a malicious node could tamper anetwork with falsified data. These attacks can result indegraded performance of networks, interference of resource
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010140http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
reservation, and unauthorized use of resources. There are twobasic kinds of cryptography that have been widely used for thenetworks:
symmetric
cryptography and
asymmetric
cryptography (such as digital signature).The communication links in MANETs are openshared medium, which makes the communications betweenneighboring nodes more vulnerable to attacks such as packetforging and malicious alteration. In addition, MANETs arecharacterized by absence of fixed infrastructure, rapid topologychange and constrained resources (such as limited batterypower, small computational capacity and bandwidth). Thesecharacteristics determine that the authentication protocols usedfor routing and data packet delivery in MANETs should belightweight and scalable. Asymmetric cryptography does notadapt well to MANETs in that the processing required forasymmetric cryptography is very high and the technique hasbeen proved to be prohibitively insufficient in wireless ad- hocnetworks in terms of message overhead and computationcomplexity. Symmetric cryptography algorithms are fast. Eventhough it introduces complexity in key maintenance but needsless computational power which in turn saves life of battery.The basic principle of Multicast Ad-hoc on demanddistance vector (MAODV) [2] is adopted from AODV [3]. Thesecurity and QoS features are added to MAODV.. TheMAODV protocol is opted because of its medium node andnetwork overhead. The routing table of MAODV contains onlythe next hop address not the entire route which helps in savingthe cache memory. Periodic updates are not happening inMAODV which will help to reduce the control messages.The rest of the paper is structured as follows: SectionII discusses the previous efforts in this area. Section III dictatesthe operational principle of MAODV, the security measurestaken for secure group communication and the QoS measurestaken to incorporate security and section IV deals with thesimulation results. Section V concludes the work.II. RELATED WORKMulticasting plays a critical role in group conferences,multiparty games etc. A comparative study is carried out withdifferent multicast routing protocols in ad-hoc networks [16].A performance comparison of MAODV and ODMRP isexplained in [18].The specific security requirements of MANETs (inparticular, key management) are still considered to be openresearch challenges. Recently, several key agreement protocolsfor MANETs were proposed [6]. Mobility impactsperformance only when members cross groups. For instance,when two partners provide broadcast services for users in twooverlapping groups, users moving within each group aremanaged by their local group key distributors (GKDs) andwithout any coordination between their broadcasts. On theother hand, when a user crosses from one group to another,security should be transferred between partners. A comparativestudy has been done based on different security mechanisms inMANETs [17].
 
One of the security mechanisms inmulticasting is group re-keying [19], which is an efficient andscalable mechanism that exploits the property of ad hocnetworks in which each member of a group is both a host and arouter, and distributes the group key to member nodes via asecure hop-by-hop propagation scheme. A probabilisticscheme based on pre-deployed symmetric keys is used forimplementing secure channels between members for group keydistribution.
 
In MANETs, the computational load andcomplexity for key management is strongly subjected torestriction of the node's available resource and the dynamicnature of network topology. Secure and Efficient KeyManagement (SEKM) [19] is an efficient method forMANETs. In SEKM, the server group creates a view of the CA(Certifying Authority) and provides certificate update servicefor all nodes, including the servers themselves. A ticketscheme is introduced for efficient certificate service. In SEKM,server group is formed securely and maintains connectivity.The certificate-updating request is processed by server group ina ticket-based approach. The system secret, held by eachserver, is refreshed periodically in a fair and efficient easy. Thepublic key mechanism used above increases the computationalcomplexity.Apart from security, wide range of work has beendone in the area of QoS.
 
The problem of QoS routing in wirednetworks is not similar in a dynamic network environment[21], especially the application of these algorithms in aMANET. QoS-AODV [22] has been proposed for QoSextension requirement, but it does not consider the best route.Indeed, it chooses the minimum delay and hop count route.SQoS [23] is a secure form of QoS-Guided Route Discoveryfor on-demand ad hoc network routing. In [24], a flexible QoSmodel for MANETs (FQMM) is explained, which is a hybridservice model and based on IntServ and Diffserv model.FQMM combines the reservation procedure for high prioritytraffic with service differentiation for low-priority traffic.Thus, FQMM provides the ideal QoS for per flow andovercomes the scalability problem by classifying the low-priority traffic into service classes. Less security measures areadopted in FQMM. QoS mainly deals with end to end delayand bandwidth. QoS provides a set of service requirements tothe flows while routing them through the network [7]. Thewidespread use of wireless technologies has increased QoS formultimedia applications in wireless networks and traditionalinternet QoS protocols like RSVP [8] cannot be used forwireless environment due to the error-prone nature of wirelesslinks and the high mobility of mobile devices in MANETs.Therefore, providing QoS in MANETs is more challengingthan in fixed and wireless networks. In order to overcome theabove drawbacks a new proposal for QoS and security basedon MAODV is introduced. The protocol identifies nodefailures and link failures which is not covered by the above
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010141http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
entioned mechanisms and also provides security for the datatransmitting.III. OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLESA. MAODVMAODV is the multicast extension of AODV. BothAODV and MAODV are routing protocols for ad-hocnetworks, with AODV for unicast traffic and MAODV formulticast traffic. MAODV allows each node in the network tosend out multicast data packets, and the multicast data packetsare broadcast when propagating along the multicast group tree.Message Formats of MAODVEach multicast group has a unique multicast groupaddress. According to the MAODV specification, eachmulticast group is organized using tree structure, composed of the group members and non group members. The nodes whichare non group members that help in routing the data must existin the tree to connect the group members. Associated with eachmulticast tree, the group member that first constructs the tree isthe group leader for that tree, responsible for maintaining thegroup tree by periodically broadcasting Group-Hello (GRPH)messages in the whole network. The group leader alsomaintains the group sequence number, which is propagated inthe network through the GRPH.Each node in the network may maintain three tables.
Unicast Route Table
recording the next hop forroutes to other destinations for unicast traffic.
 Multicast Route Table
, listing the next hops for thetree structure of each multicast group. Each entryrepresents one group tree structure. Every node thatbelongs to that group tree should maintain suchentries, with its own identity as group leader, groupmember, or router (non-multicast member that is inthe tree to provide connectivity). Every next hop isassociated with direction either downstream orupstream. If the next hop is one-hop nearer to thegroup leader, the direction is upstream; otherwise,the direction is downstream. The group leader has noupstream, while other nodes in the tree should haveone and only one upstream.
Group Leader Table
. It records the currently-known multicast group address with its group leaderaddress and the next hop towards that group leaderwhen a node receives a periodic GRPH message. Itincludes the function of the
 Request Table.
 Route Request (RREQ) Message Format is given in figure 1.
0 1 2 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1Type J|R|G| Reserved | Hop Count || Other fields as specified for AODV.......Figure 1. Route Request (RREQ) Message Format
Type
1J
Join flag; set when source node wants to join amulticast group.R
Repair flag; set when a node wants to initiate a repairto connect two previously disconnected portions of themulticast tree.Route Reply (RREP) Message Format is given in figure 2.
0 1 2 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1| Type |R| Reserved |Prefix Sz| Hop Count || Other fields as specified for AODV.......Figure 2. Route Reply (RREP) Message Format
Type
2R
Repair flag; set when a node is responding to a repairrequest to connect two previously disconnectedportions of the multicast tree.When the RREP is sent for a multicast destination, theMulticast Group Information extension is appended. MulticastActivation (MACT) Message Format is given in figure 3.
0 1 2 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1| Type |J|P|G|U|R| Reserved | Hop Count || Multicast Group IP address || Source IP address || Source Sequence Number |Figure 3. Multicast Activation (MACT) Message Format
MACT message contains the following fields:Type
4J
Join flag; set when a node is joining the multicastgroup, as opposed to finding a route to the group forthe transmission of data messages.P
Prune flag; set when a node wishes to prune itself fromthe tree, unset when the node is activating a tree link.G
Group Leader flag; set by a multicast tree member thatfails to repair a multicast tree link breakage, and
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010142http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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