Star & Furrow
Record cold temperatures, such as -9°C in Greecein January ’04 with 1 foot of snow and the lemon cropfrosted, are becoming the norm. Record hot temperaturesand forest ﬁres, torrential rainstorms, ﬂoods, giant hail,mud/land-slides and soil erosion, are becoming the norm.Increased frequency and size of hurricanes and earthquakes,extreme climatic catastrophes are becoming the norm, glob-ally, due to climate change.Can we continue paying the cost of cleaning up,rebuilding and “prevention” over and over again? Can weactually solve any of the problems? There is one do-ablesolution to the whole problem that lies beneath our feet inthe soil. To shape the future we need to understand the past.These climatic catastrophes indicate that we are living dur-ing the ﬁnal stages of the present interglacial. Twenty ﬁveglaciations, in 2.5 million years, each lasting about 90,000years and 25 interglacials, each lasting about 10,000 years,are more than coincidence.”
(Dr. Johannes Iversen, State Geologist, and Svend Th. Andersen, Geological Survey of Denmark, 1960’s)
During the Protocratic phase the Earth turned green.
Pioneer trees grew in the crushed rock and dropped leaveswhich biodegraded to form soil.
During the Mesocratic phase Globalaverage soil depth was 7.5 feet.
Trees during this “post -glacial climatic optimum” phasewere up to 8 times bigger in bulk than any trees left on Earthtoday. Deserts of sand and rock in the Tropics were minimal,as were the ice sheets. Atmospheric carbon was 270ppm (to-day it is 378ppm). The carbon that was once in the deep soiland giant trees has returned to the atmosphere, along withour fossil fuel emissions. Today soil depth is 4.5 – 7.5 inches.
The main feature of the Oligocratric phase issoil demineralisation and soil acidiﬁcation.
As the minerals in our soils were depleted, the soil chemistryand the type of tree cover changed. The Caledonian forestappeared 6,000 years ago in Scotland. Before that, duringthe Mesocratic phase, a mainly deciduous thick impenetra-ble forest covered Scotland. People lived on the coasts.
The main feature of the ﬁnal Telocratic phase,which lasts 170 ± 45 years, is soil erosion,
when torrential rainstorms wash whatever minerals are leftin the soil into the rivers and seas, ending in an approximate20 year transition into glaciation.
HUMAN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGES
At the end of the Mesocratic phase there was a slight globalcooling. Our species response was to stop being nomadic; do-mesticate our animals; build villages and towns and introducepoliticians and taxation.At the end of the Oligocratic phase 170 years ago,our species response was to apply lime to the acidic land; minefor ores; cut down forests to make charcoal for iron smelt-ing, emit more carbon into the atmosphere. This response,170 years ago, was the Industrial Revolution. The Telocraticphase lasts 170 years! Our species response, at the end of theTelocratic phase is the Technological Revolution!
WARMING OR COOLING?
Oceanographers are telling us “global warming” is meltingthe edges of the ice caps and we may be in a stage of transi-tion into global cooling because the melting freshwater icecools the warm ocean currents, such as the Gulf stream, thatkeep our British climate warm.When the sun’s rays strike the Earth, there is moreheat impact in lower latitudes, the Tropics, than in higherlatitudes. Also, the sun shines on lower latitudes all year long,but not on higher latitudes. Since the Industrial Revolutionour species has been, and still is, “turning up the volume”of the greenhouse effect - the Earth’s warming mechanism- mainly in the lower latitudes. Because the lower latitudesare hotter than normal, more water than normal evaporatesand is transported to the higher latitudes. It passes overthe temperate zone middle latitudes in both hemispheres,producing more cloud than normal (contributing to global
1 7 0 y r s
T e l o c r a t i c
The Present Interglacial has four main phases.These phases are approximate due to varying localised conditions around the globe.
10,800 years2,800 years3,000 years5,000 years
© S E E R