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An Agent Based Approach for End-to-End QoS Guarantees in Multimedia IP networks

An Agent Based Approach for End-to-End QoS Guarantees in Multimedia IP networks

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Published by ijcsis
Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees are important, if the network capacity is insufficient, particularly for real-time streaming multimedia applications such as voice over IP. Differentiated Services or DiffServ are the services of the original internet that prioritizes flows according to their service class and
provides much better bandwidth utilization. Predicting the end-to-end behavior and acquiring the method by which individual routers deal with the type of service field is difficult and fairly appropriate. Moreover it becomes more difficult if a packet crosses two or more DiffServ clouds, before reaching its destination. In this paper, we propose a QoS mapping framework to achieve scalability and end-to-end accuracy in QoS, using a Policy Agent (PA) in every DiffServ domain. This agent performs admission control decisions depending on a policy database. It configures the ingress and egress routers to perform traffic policing and conditioning jobs. Moreover, it constructs the shortest path between a source and destination satisfying the QoS constraints Bandwidth and Delay. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach attains high throughput with reduced packet loss when compared with the normal DiffServ architecture.
Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees are important, if the network capacity is insufficient, particularly for real-time streaming multimedia applications such as voice over IP. Differentiated Services or DiffServ are the services of the original internet that prioritizes flows according to their service class and
provides much better bandwidth utilization. Predicting the end-to-end behavior and acquiring the method by which individual routers deal with the type of service field is difficult and fairly appropriate. Moreover it becomes more difficult if a packet crosses two or more DiffServ clouds, before reaching its destination. In this paper, we propose a QoS mapping framework to achieve scalability and end-to-end accuracy in QoS, using a Policy Agent (PA) in every DiffServ domain. This agent performs admission control decisions depending on a policy database. It configures the ingress and egress routers to perform traffic policing and conditioning jobs. Moreover, it constructs the shortest path between a source and destination satisfying the QoS constraints Bandwidth and Delay. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach attains high throughput with reduced packet loss when compared with the normal DiffServ architecture.

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An Agent Based Approach for End-to-End QoSGuarantees in Multimedia IP networks
A.Veerabhadra Reddy
Senior Lecturer, Department of ECEGovernment Polytechnic for Women, Hindupurveerabhadrareddyphd@gmail.com
Dr. D. Sreenivasa Rao
Professor, Department of ECEJNTU CE, Hyderabaddsraoece@yahoo.co.uk 
 Abstract
Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees are important, if the network capacity is insufficient, particularly for real-timestreaming multimedia applications such as voice over IP.Differentiated Services or DiffServ are the services of the originalinternet that prioritizes flows according to their service class andprovides much better bandwidth utilization. Predicting the end-to-end behavior and acquiring the method by which individualrouters deal with the type of service field is difficult and fairlyappropriate. Moreover it becomes more difficult if a pakcetcrosses two or more DiffServ clouds, before reaching itsdestination. In this paper, we propose a QoS mapping frameworkto achieve scalability and end-to-end accuracy in QoS, using aPolicy Agent (PA) in every DiffServ domain. This agent performsadmission control decisions depending on a policy database. Itconfigures the ingress and egress routers to perform trafficpolicing and conditioning jobs. Moreover, it constructs theshortest path between a source and destination satisfying the QoSconstraints Bandwidth and Delay. By simulation results, we showthat our proposed approach attains high throughput withreduced packet loss when compared with the normal DiffServarchitecture.
 Keywords-Quality of Service (QoS); Policy Agent (PA); DiffServ domain; QoS Route Selection; Packet loss, Throughput.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
 A. IP Networks
A computer network made of devices that support theInternet Protocol is an IP network [1]. In Internet ProtocolSuite, IP is the primary protocol in Internet Layer which hasthe task of delivering the packets from source to destinationmainly based on their address.
 B. Quality of Service (QoS) in IP
When compared with the achieved service quality, thetraffic engineering term quality of service (QoS) will refer tothe resource reservation control mechanisms in both the fieldsof computer networking and other packet-switchedtelecommunication networks.The abiltiy of the QoS is toprovide different priorties to different applications, users ordata flows or guaranteeing a certain level of performance to adata flow. For example, it guarantees required bit rate, delay, jitter, packet dropping probability and/or bit error rate. Qualityof Service (QoS) guarantees are important, if the network capacity is insufficient, particularly for real-time streamingmultimedia applications such as voice over IP. This is becauseit often requies the fixed bit rate and they are delay sensitiveand also in networks where the capacity is a limited resource(Eg. Cellular data commumnication). QoS mechanisms are notrequired in the absence of network congestion [1]. QoS is themost important implementation consideration within aconverged network. It is a networking term that specifies aguaranteed network data performance level. Practically, QoSis a mechanism to ensure that audio and video data passthrough the network with minimum delay. IP voice orvideoconferencing calls will be unreliable, inconsistent, andoften unsatisfactory, if network QoS is poor [2].
C. Two solutions for Quality of Service guarantees
(i) Differentiated services (DiffServ)
Differentiated Services or DiffServ are the services of theoriginal internet which maintains stateless property.
 
Differentiated Services is a computer networking architecturewhich specifies a scalable,simple, and coarse-grainedmechanism for classifying, managing network traffic andproviding QoS guarantees on modern IP networks [1]. Thebasic of this architecture is to provide network resourcesbetween the traffic aggregates. DiffServ prioritizes flowsaccording to their service class and provides much betterbandwidth utilization [3]
(ii) Integrated services
Services that require stateful architecture of the internet areknown as Integrated Services or IntServ [1]. This architecturespecifies the elements to guarantee QoS on the networks and itis the basis of the reservation of network resources betweenthe individual flows [3]. The main idea of the service is theresource reservation and admission control. [4]. Deterministicbandwidth and end-to-end delays to the individual flows canbe offered by the IntServ. Moreover, it depends upon theadmission control by placing strict resource reservationswhich guarantees the worst case situation [3]. The followingare the categories of services in this architecture:
o
 
Guaranteed Services
o
 
Controlled-load Service
Guaranteed Services:
It is estimated as the strongestallowable service in the environment of the internet so far. Ithas the ability to provide per flow bandwidth and delay
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010188http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 guarantees and it can assure that the packets will arrive withina selected delivery time [1].
Controlled-load Service:
It allows the services poorly. Itsupports the applications which are highly sensitive tocongested networks such as real time applications and theseapplications must tolerate small amounts of loss and delay. If an application uses this service, the performance will not beaffected even when the network load is increased. The trafficwill be provided with service similar to normal traffic in anetwork under light condition [1].
 D. Problems or Challenges of QoS
Many things can happen to packets as they travel fromorigin to destination, resulting in the following problems asseen from the point of view of the sender and receiver:When the packets travel from the source to destination, itexperiences the following problems as seen from the point of view fo the sender and the receiver.
Dropped Packets:
The routers may fail to deliver (drop)some packets when they arrive, if the buffers of the droppedpackets are already full. Dependng on the state of the network,some of the packets or none or all the packets might bedropped. Thus it is not possible to forecast the packets.
Delay:
For a packet it may take a long time to reach itsdestination, because it gets held up in long queues, or takes aindirect route to avoid congestion. Excessive delay can renderan application such as VoIP or online gaming unusable, insome cases.
Jitter:
Packets may reach the destination with differentdelays from the source. A packet’s delay varies with itsposition in the queues of the routers along the path betweensource and destination.This position can vary and thus itcannot be predicted. This variation in delay is known as jitter[1].
 Out-of-order Delivery:
When a group of packets arerouted, then different packets may take different route. Each of the packets results in different delay because the order of thepackets are changed from the source to the destination. Specialadditional protocols are required to rearrange the out-of-orderpackets.
Error:
When packets are transmitted along a route, it maybe misdirected or combined together or corrupted. Thereceiver have to detect this and the request the sender toresend packets [1].
 E. Problems in Differentiated and Integrated Services
Predicting the end-to-end behavior and acquiring themethod by which individual routers deal with the type of service field is difficult and fairly appropriate. Moreover itbecomes more difficult if a pakcet crosses two or moreDiffServ clouds, before reaching its destination.Simple over-provisioning is an inefficient solution for theinternet traffic which is highly bursty. If the network isdimensioned to carry all traffic with traffic management, itwill cost an order of magnitude more than a network dimensioned to carry the same traffic. The traffic managementis used to prevent the collapse during the peaks.Measuring the peak load is not possible. Since the TCPprotocol requests more bandwidth as the loss rate decreases, itis not possible to measure the links to avoid end-to-end lossaltogether, when sending a large file. On the other hand,increasing the capacity of one link causes loss on a differentlink.By dropping the packets which are expended in carryingthese packets until now through the network, the resourceswill be wasted. The bandwidth consumption at the congestionpoint and in the network is caused by retransmitting this trafficin many cases. The packets must be discarded as close to theedge of the network as possible, while Diffserv is oftenimplemented throughout a network to minimize this waste.The problem with IntServ is that many states must bestored in each router. It is difficult to keep the path of all thereservations because it works on the small scale. Thus thearchitrecture is not much familiar [1].In this paper, we propose a QoS mapping framework toachieve scalability and end-to-end accuracy in QoS, using aPolicy Agent (PA) in every DiffServ domain. This agentperforms admission control decisions depending on a policydatabase.II.
 
R
ELATED
W
ORK
 Kazi Khaled Al-Zahid et al [5], have presented a strategyfor ETE QoS management in IP networks based on the use of programmable software agents. They have proposed a QoS-based routing architecture to serve multi-constrain ETE highpriority applications. According to their proposal, the userscan be electronically specify their QoS requirement from thehost application based on their preference. Although, theirproposed system has some performance limitations, but as awhole it is flexible, because the routing functionality iscompletely done by the agents which works as complementswith the existing technology.Sergio Gonzalez-Valenzuala et al [6] have investigated animprovement by developing algorithms for determining theoptimal multipoint-to-point (mp2p) routes through the use of mobile software agents. They have presented an mp2p routingscheme using a mobile intelligent agent system, calledWAVES. The agents work in a highly distributed and parallelmanner, cooperating to determine optimal routes in an mp2pconnection scenario. This work aims at closing the gapbetween the theoretical routing research based on mobileagents, and practical routing requirements for real worldnetworks that are likely to be deployed during the forthcomingyears.Yao-Nan Lien et al [7] have stated briefly an approach forthe problem of QoS budget allocation which is deliberated inoptimization for increasing resource usage efficiency. Theend-to-end QoS controller in QoS coordination layer has thecapability of global resource planning. It suggests that an end-to-end QoS controller will plan all resource provisionsaccording to the traffic demands, and all the resource
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010189http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 allocation policy will be in accord with the planning. Theirframework with simulation study demonstrates that it canindeed substantially increase the total number of network paths under constraints of end-to-end QoS requirements.Daniel Schlosser et al [8] have proposed a simple interfaceas an abstraction of a network service based on the serviceoriented architecture approach. The approach considers QoSas the network functionality the user is mainly interested inand includes charging. They have shown how QoS guaranteesfor several parts of one connection can be consolidated into aQoS description for the complete service. Moreover, they havediscussed options to measure the QoS and presentedmeasurements exposing the quality of an available activemeasurement tool, Cisco IP SLA.Lynda Zitoune et al [9] have presented a reactive controlpolicy which adapts the source bit rate to the reservedresources in order to ensure performance guarantees formultimedia applications. Their proposed method calledflatness based trajectory tracking deals with drastic traffic flowrate changes and limits the traffic in order to respect the timeconstraints. They have showed the contribution of the reactivecontrol and the dynamic regulation using purely controltheoretic approaches which stabilize the network and avoidundesirable oscillations for the transmission of such criticalflows. By their work they have presented a performanceanalysis for such rate control mechanism, and illustrate itsfeasibility through its implementation on MPLS-TE controlplane of SSFnet/Glass simulator.Rick Whitner et al [10] have examined the issue of matching active measurements to the network’s QoSconfiguration when monitoring a QoS-enabled IP network.Initially, they have illustrated the issue using common activemeasurement techniques. Then, they have examinedapproaches to matching active measurements to the network’sQoS configuration. Finally, they presented their experiences inprototyping one approach.III.
 
N
ETWORK
M
ODEL
We assume that a communication network can be modeledusing a graph ),(
 E G
=
where
is the set of nodes whichcould be routers, servers or switches and
 E 
represents the setof edges or links of the network. For any consecutive nodes a,b, the link 
ab
l
can be expressed for different parameters as:
abl
 H  H 
=
 
abl
=
 
abl
 D D
=
 
abl
 B B
=
 Where
l
 H 
,
is the hops,
l
is the cost,
l
 D
is the delay and
l
 B
is the bandwidth of the link 
l
, where the link 
 E l
isdirectly connected by
a
and
b
. These parameters mayoccur in either nodes or edges. And these have either positiveor non-negative impact over the communication network. QoSfor different parameter can be expressed using the followingrelation.}|{
Pl B MIN  B
l p
=
(1)
+=
PnnPll p
 D D D
(2)
+=
PnnPll p
(3)
 
Where,
P
is the path from source s to the destination
.
 p
 B
is the bandwidth of the path
P
 
 p
 D
is the delay of the path
P
 
 p
is the cost of the path
P
 The problem is to find a path between
s
to
, such that itwould satisfy all QoS constraints from source to destination.The above constraints can be categorized in two groups: link constraints and path constraints. Path constrains again consistof two classes: additive and multiplicative. Serving applicationthat requires both of these constraints simultaneously is yet anunsolved problem.IV.
 
P
ROPOSED
A
GENT
B
ASED
A
PPROACH
 
 A. Design Overview
In this work, we propose a QoS mapping framework forboth user and administrative policy, qualitative andquantitative QoS constraints over the internet’s DiffServdomain. We consider the Policy Agent (PA) that depends onthe local state information to satisfy the end user and do notconsider any central mechanisms such as bandwidth broker oradaptive bandwidth scheme. Thus in our approach, accordingto the service and the requirement of the end user, multiconstraint MQoS is used for QoS mapping requested indifferent degrees by user applications.By assigning each packet with an appropriate QoS level,the QoS control takes place. In order to manage trafficaccording to the traffic conditioning agreement specified in theservice level agreement (SLA), the application layer isresponsible for producing the MQoS and sending it to theingress of a DiffServ domain. The PA dynamically configuredthe necessary interface based on the requested traffic’s sourceand destination information. Thus the traffic which is markedas the high priority will get the opportunity while the BEtraffic is considered as low priority. The process is repeatedfor each node along the destination, if the PA satisfies therequested MQoS. Otherwise, a negative notification is sent tothe source that current network is unable to meet the requestedQoS constraints.
 B. QoS Moniroting by the PA
T
ABLE
I.
 
Q
O
S
 
R
ESOURCE
M
ATRIX
 
N Bandwidth Delay Cost
N
0
e
00
e
01
E
02
 N
1
e
10
e
11
E
12
 N
2
e
20
e
22
E
23
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010190http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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