(IJCSIS) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION SECURITY , VOL. 8 , NO. 4 , JULY 2010
A Novel approach of Data Hiding Using PixelMapping Method (PMM)
Souvik Bhattacharyya , Lalan Kumar and Gautam Sanyal
—Steganography is a process that involves hiding a mes-sage in an appropriate carrier like image or audio. The carrier can besent to a receiver without any one except the authenticated receiveronly knows existence of the information. Considerable amount of work has been carried out by different researchers on steganography.In this work the authors propose a novel Steganographic method forhiding information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image.The proposed approach works by selecting the embedding pixelsusing some mathematical function and then ﬁnds the 8 neighborhoodof the each selected pixel and map each two bit of the secret messagein each of the neighbor pixel according to the features of that pixelin a speciﬁed manner.This approach can be modiﬁed for mapping of four bits of the secret message by considering more no of features of the embedding pixel. Before embedding a checking has been done toﬁnd out whether the selected pixel or its neighbor lies at the boundaryof the image or not. This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image with minimumdegradation.
—Cover Image, Pixel Mapping Method (PMM), StegoImage.
TEGANOGRAPHY is the art and science of hiding infor-mation by embedding messages within other, seeminglyharmless messages. Steganography means “covered writing” inGreek. As the goal of steganography is to hide the presenceof a message and to create a covert channel, it can be seenas the complement of cryptography, whose goal is to hide thecontent of a message. Another form of information hiding isdigital watermarking, which is the process that embeds datacalled a watermark, tag or label into a multimedia object suchthat watermark can be detected or extracted later to make anassertion about the object. The object may be an image, audio,video or text only. A famous illustration of steganographyis
Simmons’ Prisoners’ Problem
.An assumption canbe made based on this model is that if both the senderand receiver share some common secret information thenthe corresponding steganography protocol is known as thenthe secret key steganography where as pure steganographymeans that there is none prior information shared by senderand receiver. If the public key of the receiver is knownto the sender, the steganographic protocol is called publickey steganography ,  and .For a more thorough
S. Bhattacharyya is with the Department of Computer Science and Engi-neering, University Institute of Technology, The University of Burdwan, WestBengal, India e-mail: (firstname.lastname@example.org).L. Kumar is with the Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research ,Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India e-mail:(email@example.com).G. Sanyal is with with the Department of Computer Science and En-gineering, National Institute of Technologyy West Bengal, India e-mail:(firstname.lastname@example.org).
knowledge of steganography methodology the reader maysee , .Some Steganographic model with high securityfeatures has been presented in ,  and .Almost alldigital ﬁle formats can be used for steganography, but theimage and audio ﬁles are more suitable because of their highdegree of redundancy . Fig. 1 below shows the differentcategories of steganography techniques.
Fig. 1. Types of Steganography
A block diagram of a generic image steganographic systemis given in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Generic form of Image Steganography
A message is embedded in a digital image (cover image)through an embedding algorithm, with the help of a secret key.The resulting stego image is transmitted over a channel to thereceiver where it is processed by the extraction algorithm usingthe same key. During transmission the stego image, it can bemonitored by unauthenticated viewers who will only noticethe transmission of an image without discovering the existenceof the hidden message. In this work a speciﬁc image basedsteganographic method for gray level image has proposed. Inthis method instead of embedding the secret message into thecover image a mapping technique has been incorporated togenerate the stego image. This method is capable of extractingthe secret message without the presence of the cover image.This paper has been organized as following sections: Sec-tion II describes some related works, Section III deals withproposed method. Algorithms are discussed in Section IVand Experimental results are shown in Section V. Section VI