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A Compressed Video Steganography using Random Embedding Scheme

A Compressed Video Steganography using Random Embedding Scheme

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Published by ijcsis
Steganography is the art of hiding while the communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information. Many different carrier file formats can be used, images, videos, audios, image etc. This paper proposes a Compressed Video Steganographic Scheme. In this scheme, data hiding operations are executed entirely in the compressed domain. Here data are embedded in the macro blocks of I frame with maximum scene change. To enlarge the capacity of the hidden secret information and to provide an imperceptible stego-image for human vision, random embedding scheme (Pixel Value Differencing) is used. Decompression process is not required in this scheme. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has high imperceptibility and capacity.
Steganography is the art of hiding while the communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information. Many different carrier file formats can be used, images, videos, audios, image etc. This paper proposes a Compressed Video Steganographic Scheme. In this scheme, data hiding operations are executed entirely in the compressed domain. Here data are embedded in the macro blocks of I frame with maximum scene change. To enlarge the capacity of the hidden secret information and to provide an imperceptible stego-image for human vision, random embedding scheme (Pixel Value Differencing) is used. Decompression process is not required in this scheme. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has high imperceptibility and capacity.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 13, 2010
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A Compressed Video Steganography usingRandom Embedding Scheme
Sherly A P Sapna Sasidharan Amritha P PTIFAC CORE inCyber Security TIFAC CORE in Cyber Security TIFAC CORE in Cyber SecurityAmrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Amrita Vishwa VidyapeethamCoimbatore, India Coimbatore, India Coimbatore, Indiasherlyram@gmail.com sapnapv@gmail.com ammuviju@gmail.com
Abstract
Steganography is the art of hiding whilethecommunication is taking place, by hiding information inother information. Many different carrier file formats can be used, images, videos,audios,image etc. This paper  proposes aCompressed Video Steganographic Scheme. Inthis scheme, datahiding operations are executed entirely inthe compressed domain. Here data are embedded in themacro blocks of I frame with maximum scene change. Toenlarge the capacity of the hidden secret information and to provide an imperceptible stego-image for human vision,random embedding scheme (Pixel Value Differencing) isused. Decompression process is not required in thisscheme. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has high imperceptibility and capacity
.
Keywords
-Video Steganography; MPEG-4;PVD
I. INTRODUCTIONThe quick growthof the Internet andmultimedia communication systems in the pastdecade has enabled users to send digital data over network suitably. However, transmission of data inan open network is not secure, and data can be easilytampered by illegal users. Consequently, shieldingdata during transmission is an important task.Although cryptographic techniques can be used for this purpose, they are not secure enough becauseencryption can provide secure delivery of digitalcontent, but when the content is decrypted,encryption no longer provides any security. To solvethis problem, data hiding techniques were proposedand have been considered widely in various fieldslike covert communication, copyright protection,and broadcast monitoring and military communication
.
Steganography is the art of hiding information insuch a way that no one can realize a hidden messagein the data except the sender and the intendedrecipient. Steganography is also known as ‘coveredwriting’ which includes methods of transmittingsecret messages through inoffensive cover mediumsin such a manner that the survival of the embeddedmessages is undetectable. It can also be viewed as atradeoff between detectability, robustness, and bitrate. Detectability is the apprehension of clandestinetransmission and is often used in combination withencryption. It isrobust to all types of processing suchas transformations, filtering, truncation, and scaling.Finally, bit rate or the maximum amountof data thatcan be transmitted.This paperconsiders dataembedding in videos. A video can be viewed as asequence of still images and data embedding inimages seems very similar to videos. However, thereare many differences between data hiding in imagesand videos, where the first important difference is thesize of the host media. Since videos contain moresample number of pixels or the number of transformdomain coefficients, a video has higher capacity thana still image and more data can be embeddedin thevideo. Also, there are some characteristics in videos
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010263http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
which cannot be found in images as perceptualredundancy in videos is due to their temporalfeatures.Heredata hiding operations are executedentirely in the compressed domain [1][2].On theother hand, as a really higher amount of data must beembedded in the case of video sequences, there is amore demanding constraint on real-time effectivenessof the system.Furthermore, with thedevelopment of multimedia and stream media on the Internet,transmitting video on the Internet will not incur suspicion. Image-based and video-basedsteganographic techniques are mainly classified intospatial domain and frequency domain based methods.The former embedding techniques are LSB, matrix,embedding[5] etc.Two important parameters for evaluating the performance of a steganographicsystem are capacity and imperceptibility. Capacityrefers to the amount of data that can be hidden in thecover medium so that no perceptible distortion isintroduced. Imperceptibility or transparencyrepresents the invisibility of the hidden data in thecover media without degrading the perceptual quality by data embedding. Security is the other parameter 
inthe
steganographic systems, which refers to anunauthorized person’s inability to detect hidden data.Previous work in data hiding field cared little aboutcapacity and had low embedding capacity
.
In this paper, we propose a securecompressed video steganographic architecture takingaccount of video statistical invisibility. This paper isorganized
as follows: Section II describes the framework of our video steganography system. In Section III, theembedding mechanism is described in detail. We give theexperimental results in Section IV.In Section V, aconclusion is drawn finally.
II.ARCHITECTURE
Fig.1:Block Diagram
As shown in the Fig. 1, the architectureconsists of four functions: I frame extraction, thescene change detector, the data embedder. The firstsection explains the extraction of I frames fromMPEG video. In the second module, scene changedetector analyzes the frames with maximum scenechange. I frames in MPEG standard is coded in intraframe manner, we can obtain the DC picture withabstracting the DC coefficients from the DCTcoefficient codes. Eq.1 describes the compare method between two conjoint I frames
 H(Ii,Ii+1)=
where
 I 
and, I
i
+1
means the i
th
and
i+1
th
I frames, H
i
and H
i+1
are histograms of DC pictures from the i
th
and
i+1
th
I frames. If the
 HD
(
 I 
i
,
 I 
i+1
) is the peak value thetwo I frames are from different scenes, therefore thescene change point is found. Also the variances var (
i
)
of each DC picture from I frame will be calculated.With the third module, data embedder, secret message
 M 
is hidden into the compressed video sequencewithout bringing perceptive distortion. To increase thecapacity of the hidden secret information and to provide an imperceptible stego-image for human
2))^(1)(/(2))^(1)((
1
 Hi Hi Hi Hi
 N 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010264http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
vision, herepixel-value differencing (PVD) is used for embedding.
III. EMBEDDING MECHANISM
 A.Embedding Position Selection
Compressed video sequence achievescompression through the elimination of temporal,spatial and statistical redundancies with the use of motion compensation, block quantization inside adiscrete cosine transform (DCT), and Huffman run-level encoding. While selection of the embedding block calculate the maximum scene change of each block of the conjoint I frames. Select the block withwhich maximum scene change occurs by usingthreshold value. Selection of proper color channel isanother issue in Video Steganography. The frames of video sequence is split into Y,Cb,Cr channels in theMPEG coding stage. According to different color resampling rules, it is possible for the ratio Y:Cb:Cr to be set to 4:2:2 or 4:2:0. Under these the onlyunchanged channel is the Y channel. So here Ychannel is preferred as the host channel. In addition tothe above selections, choosing inappropriate frametype among I-frame, P-frame or B-frame for hidingmessage is also a crucial issue. Usually, a conventionalvideo consists of a number of GOPs. Each GOP iscomposed of one I-frame and several B-frames and P-frames. A typical I-frame adopts intra coding, whichmeans it does not refer to any other frames. Differentfrom an I-frame, a P-frame only refers to its nearest preceding I-or P-frame. As for a B-frame, it refers tothe nearest preceding and succeeding I-frame or P-frame. In a conventional MPEG format, the content of a B-or P-frame is the so-called residual error betweenthe current frame and the frame to which it refers.Therefore, only an I-frame can hold completeinformation. In this paper, we choose to embedmessage into the I-frames of an MPEG compressedvideo sequence.
 B.Compressed Video Steganographic Algorithm
Here a novel steganographic approach called pixel-value differencing algorithm (PVD) is used for embedding. Images are more easily noticed by humaneyes. In the PVD embedding method, the cover image(I frame)is simply divided into a number of non-overlapping two-pixel blocks. Each block iscategorized according to the difference of the grayvalues of the two pixels in the block. A smalldifference value indicates that the block is in a smootharea and a large one indicates that it is in an edgedarea. The pixels in edged areas may, as mentioned previously, tolerate larger changes of pixel values thanthose in the smooth areas. So, in this method moredata is embedded in edged areas than in the smoothareas. And it is in this way that the changes in theresulting stego-image are kept unnoticeable.
C.Data Embedding and Extraction
1) Calculate the difference value
i
 between twoconsecutive pixels
 p
i
and
 p
i+1
for each block in thecover image. The value is given by
i
=
g
i+1
g
i
2) Using
i
to locate a suitable
 R
in the designedrange table, that is to compute
 j
= min (
u
|
i
|)where
u
>=
i
for all 1<=
k<
=
n
. Then
 R
 j
is the locatedrange.3) Compute the amount of secret data bits
that can be embedded in each pair of two consecutive pixels by
 R
 j
. The value
can be estimated from the width
w
of 
 R
 j
, this can be defined by
=
log
2
w
 j
4) Read
 bits from the binary secret data andtransform the bit sequence into a decimal value
b
. For 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010265http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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