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Selective Image Encryption Using DCT with Stream Cipher

Selective Image Encryption Using DCT with Stream Cipher

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Published by ijcsis
Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, selective image encryption using DCT with Stream Cipher is done. In the DCT method, the basic idea is to decompose the image into 8×8 blocks and these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to the frequency domain by the DCT. Then, the DCT coefficients correlated to the lower frequencies of the image block are encrypted using the RC4 Stream Cipher. The resulted encrypted blocks are shuffled using the Shuffling Algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach where only parts of the data are encrypted to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.
Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, selective image encryption using DCT with Stream Cipher is done. In the DCT method, the basic idea is to decompose the image into 8×8 blocks and these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to the frequency domain by the DCT. Then, the DCT coefficients correlated to the lower frequencies of the image block are encrypted using the RC4 Stream Cipher. The resulted encrypted blocks are shuffled using the Shuffling Algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach where only parts of the data are encrypted to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 13, 2010
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Selective Image Encryption Using DCT withStream Cipher
Sapna Sasidharan Jithin TIFAC CORE in Cyber Security TIFAC CORE in Cyber SecurityAmrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham AmritaVishwa VidyapeethamCoimbatore, India Coimbatore, Indiasapnapv@gmail.com  jithinr550@gmail.com
 Abstract 
 ─ 
Encryption is used to securely transmit data in opennetworks. Each type of data has its own features; thereforedifferent techniques should be used to protect confidential imagedata from unauthorized access. In this paper, selective imageencryption using DCT with Stream Cipher is done. In the DCTmethod, the basic idea is to decompose the image into 8×8 blocksand these blocks are transformed from the spatial domain to thefrequency domain by the DCT. Then, the DCT coefficientscorrelated to the lower frequencies of the image block areencrypted using the RC4 Stream Cipher. The resulted encrypted blocks are shuffled using the Shuffling Algorithm. Selectiveencryption is a recent approach where only parts of the data areencrypted to reduce the computational requirements for hugevolumes of images.
 Keywords-DCT;Stream Cipher; Shuffling Algorithm;Selective Encryption
I.INTRODUCTIONCurrently, information security is becoming moreessential in data storage and transmission. Images arewidely used in several processes. Therefore, the protectionof image data from unauthorized access is important. Imageencryption plays a significant role in the field of information hiding. Image hiding or encrypting methodsand algorithms range from simple spatial domain methodsto more complicated and reliable frequency domain[1]ones. It is argued that the encryption algorithms, which have been originally developed for text data, are not suitable for securing many real-time multimedia applications because of large data sizes. A majorrecent trend is to minimize thecomputational requirements for secure multimediadistribution by“selective encryption” where only parts of the data are encrypted. Selective encryptionaims atavoiding the encryption of all bits of a digital image and yetensuring a secure encryption. The key point is to encryptonly a small part of the bit stream to obtain a fast method[2].Several selective encryption methods have been proposed for DCT compressed images. Droogenbroeck andBenedett [3] selected AC coefficients from compressedimages for encryption. In their method the DC coefficientsare not ciphered because they carry important visibleinformation and they are highly predictable. Thecompression andencryption stages are separated in thisapproach and this requires an additional operating cost.Fitchet al. [4] have proposed a partial image encryptionwhere the data are organizedin a scalable bitstream form[5]. The variety of applications for secure multimediarequires either full encryption or selective encryption.However, there is a huge spectrum of applications that
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010268http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
demands security on a lower level, as for example thatensured by selective encryption (SE). Such approachesreduce the computational requirements in networks withdiverse client device capabilities. The goal of SE is toencrypt a well defined range of parameters or coefficients.The security level of SE is always lower when comparedwith the full encryption. However, SE decreases thedatasize to be encrypted and consequently requires lower computational time. Confidentiality is very important for lower powered systems such as for example wirelessdevices. Always, when considering image processingapplications on such devices we should use minimalresources. However, the classical ciphers are usually tooslow to be used for image and video processing incommercial low powered systems. The selective encryption(SE) can fulfill the application requirements without theoverhead of the full encryption. In the case of SE, only theminimum necessary data are ciphered [6]. In [7] a techniquewas proposed, called zigzag permutation applicable toDCT-based videos and images. On one hand this method provides a certain level of confidentiality, while on theother hand it increases the overall bit rate. Combining SEand image/video compression using the set partitioning inhierarchical trees was used in [8]. However, this approachrequires a significant computational complexity. A methodthat does not require significant processing time and whichoperates directly on the bit planes of the image was proposed in [9]. An approach that turns entropy coders intoencryption ciphers using statistical models was proposed in[10]. In [11] it was suggested a technique that encrypts aselected number of AC coefficients. The DC coefficientsare not ciphered since they carry important visualinformation and they are highly predictable. In spite of theconstancy in the bit rate while preserving the bit streamcompliance, this method is not scalable. Moreover, thecompression and the encryption process are separated andconsequently the computational complexity is increased[6].II.DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORMThe DCT is a mathematical transformation that takesa signal and transforms it from spatial domain intofrequency domain. Many digital image and videocompression schemes use a block-based DCT, because thisalgorithm minimizes the amount of data needed to recreatea digitized image. In particular, JPEG and MPEGuse theDCT to concentrate image information by removing spatialdata redundancies in two-dimensional images[12].In thestandard JPEG encoding, the representation of the colors inthe image is converted from RGB to YCbCr, then the imageis decomposed in8×8 blocks, these blocks are transformedfrom the spatial to the frequency domain by the DCT. Then,each DCT coefficient is divided by its correspondingconstant in a standard quantization table and rounded downto the nearest integer. After this step, the DCT quantizedcoefficients are scanned in a predefined zigzag order to beused in the final step, the lossless compression as illustratedin Fig. 1. In each block the 64 DCT coefficients are set upfrom the lowest upper left corner) to the highest frequencies(lower right corner)[13].
Fig. 1:JPEG Compression Algorithm
III. STREAM CIPHER RC4 is a stream cipher, symmetric key algorithm.The same algorithm is used for both encryption anddecryption as the data stream is simply XORed with the
OriginalImageImage decomposingin8x8 blocksDCTJPEGImageEntropyEncoder Quantizer Quantizer Matrix
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010269http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
generated key sequence. The key stream is completelyindependent of the plaintext used. It uses a variable lengthkey from 1 to 256 bit to initialize a 256-bit state table. Thestate table is used for subsequent generation of pseudo-random bits and then to generate a pseudo-random streamwhich is XORed with the plaintext to give the ciphertext.The algorithm can be broken into two stages: initialization,and operation. In the initialization stage the 256-bit statetable,
S
is populated, using the key,
K
as a seed. Once thestate table is setup, it continues to be modified in a regular  pattern as data is encrypted.The initialization process can be summarized by the pseudo-code: j = 0;for i = 0 to 255:S[i] = i;for i = 0 to 255: j = (j + S[i] + K[i]) mod 256;swap S[i] and S[j];It is important to notice here the swapping of the locationsof the numbers 0 to 255 (each of which occurs only once) inthe state table. The values of the state table are provided.Once the initialization process is completed, the operation process may be summarized as shown by the pseudo code below;i = j = 0;for (k = 0 to N
1) {i = (i + 1) mod 256; j = (j + S[i]) mod 256;swap S[i] and S[j]; pr = S[ (S[i] + S[j]) mod 256]output M[k] XOR pr }Where M [0..N
1] is the input message consisting of N bits.This algorithm produces a stream of pseudo-random values.The input stream is XORed with these values, bit by bit.The encryption and decryption process is the same as thedata stream is simply XORed with the generated keysequence.IV.THE PROPOSED METHODIn the proposed method, a comparative study of selective image encryption using DCT with Stream Cipher is done. In the DCTmethod, the basic idea is to decomposethe image into 8×8 blocks and these blocks are transformedfrom the spatial domain to the frequency domain by theDCT. Then, the DCT coefficients correlated to the lower frequencies of the image block are encrypted using the RC4Stream Cipher. The concept behind encrypting only someselective DCT coefficients (the coefficients [0,0], [0,1],[0,2], [1,0], [2,0], [1,1]) is based on the fact that the imagedetails are situated in the lower frequencies and the humanis most sensitive to the lower frequencies than to the higher frequencies. An extra security has been provided to theresulted encrypted blocks by shuffling the resulted blocksusingthe Shuffling Algorithm. Fig. 4shows the general block diagram of the proposed method of selective imageencryption.
Fig. 4:Block Diagram of the Proposed Method
In the following, the encryption, decryption and shuffling of the images are illustrated.
OriginalImageImage decomposinginto 8x8 blocksDCTSelection of some DCTcoefficientsIDCTEncryptedImageShufflingDecryptionDecryptedImageStream Cipher 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010270http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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