T x Dif
t t t
. (4)Foreground detection is started by computing a pixel basedabsolute difference between each incoming frame and anadaptive background frame
. The pixels are assumed tocontain motion if the absolute differences exceed a predefinedthreshold level. As a result, a binary image is formed whereactive pixels are labeled with a "1" and non-active ones with a"0". With the updated background image strategy usingKalman filter, we get the better foreground detection result.This is a simple, but efficient method to monitor the changesin active during a few consecutive frames. Those pixels whichtend to change their activity frequently are masked out fromthe binary image representing the foreground detection result
Shadows appear as surface features, when in fact they arecaused by the interaction between light and objects. This maylead to problems in scene understanding, object segmentation,tracking, recognition, etc. Because of the undesirable effects of shadows on image analysis, much attention was paid to the areaof shadow detection and removal over the past decades andcovered many specific applications such as traffic surveillance.In this paper, 8-neighborhood gray clustering method is used todefine the precise shadow and remove it. The mean clusteringthreshold and the initial cluster seed of the gray are calculatedby the following equations.
)),(max()3 / 1(
u y xGT
is a gray value of the pixel in
y x I
isthe mean of
. The initial seed
locates in the centre of
.The clustering starts from the seed
, and the point
is examined in turn. If at least one point in the 8-neighborhood of
has been marked as a shadow region,standard deviation of
is calculated by the followingequation.
u y xPP
y x I P
is the gray value of I(x,y). If
must be shadow point; otherwise, the point need not bemarked. The point
is checked constantly until no new pointis marked. At last all the marked shadow points are removed.
Usually due to the camera noise and irregular objectmotion, there always exist some noise regions both in theobject and background region. Moreover, the object boundariesare also not very smooth. Hence a post processing technique isapplied on the foreground image. In order to remove the noisewiener low-pass filters a grayscale image that has beendegraded by constant power additive noise. It is based on anadaptive statistics estimated from a local neighborhood of eachpixel.
After post-processing, the image is compared with the oneof the original frames (usually, the first frame). If the pixels areless than certain threshold, then they are ignored. Otherwise,they are replaced by the pixels of original image. This resultingimage will be consisting of the moving object ignoring thebackground and hence satisfying our requirement.IV.
MPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
This system was implemented on an Intel Pentium IV 280GHz PC. We have tested the system on image sequences ondifferent scenarios like traffic junction intersection, highwaysetc. Real life traffic video sequence are used to demonstrate thevehicle tracking from traffic video sequences using theproposed framework. All the videos chosen for vehicle trackinghave same light intensity and have been taken during day time.We convert the colour video frames to gray scale images.Automatic monitoring visual surveillance systemimplementation needs to detect vehicles using automaticbackground extraction. Background subtraction is the mainstep for vehicle detection. Fig. 4 shows number of successiveframes that are used to extract the background. Digital cameraused to take shots. The camera placed over the highwaydirectly. It shots eight frames per second.
a and a