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Scheduling of Workflows in Grid Computing with Probabilistic Tabu Search

Scheduling of Workflows in Grid Computing with Probabilistic Tabu Search

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Published by ijcsis
In Grid Environment the number of resources and tasks to be scheduled is usually variable and dynamic in nature. This characteristic emphasizes the scheduling approach as a complex optimization problem. Scheduling is a key issue which must be solved in grid computing study and a better scheduling scheme can greatly improve the efficiency. The objective of this paper is to explore the Probabilistic Tabu Search to promote compute intensive grid applications to maximize the Job Completion Ratio and minimize lateness in job completion based on the comprehensive understanding of the challenges and the state of the art of current research. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Further the comparative evaluation with other scheduling algorithms such as First Come First Serve (FCFS), Last Come First Serve (LCFS), Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and Tabu Search are plotted.
In Grid Environment the number of resources and tasks to be scheduled is usually variable and dynamic in nature. This characteristic emphasizes the scheduling approach as a complex optimization problem. Scheduling is a key issue which must be solved in grid computing study and a better scheduling scheme can greatly improve the efficiency. The objective of this paper is to explore the Probabilistic Tabu Search to promote compute intensive grid applications to maximize the Job Completion Ratio and minimize lateness in job completion based on the comprehensive understanding of the challenges and the state of the art of current research. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Further the comparative evaluation with other scheduling algorithms such as First Come First Serve (FCFS), Last Come First Serve (LCFS), Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and Tabu Search are plotted.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 13, 2010
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10/25/2012

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Scheduling of Workflows in Grid Computingwith Probabilistic Tabu Search
R. Joshua Samuel Raj
CSE, VV College of EngineeringTirunelveli, India joshuasamuelraj@gmail.com
Dr. V. Vasudevan
Prof. & Head/IT, Kalasalingam UniversitySrivilliputur, Indiadrvvmca@yahoo.com
 Abstract:
In Grid Environment the number of resourcesand tasks to be scheduled is usually variable anddynamic in nature. This characteristic emphasizes thescheduling approach as a complex optimizationproblem. Scheduling is a key issue which must be solvedin grid computing study and a better scheduling schemecan greatly improve the efficiency.The objective of thispaper is to explore the Probabilistic Tabu Search topromote compute intensive grid applications tomaximize the Job Completion Ratio and minimizelateness in job completion based on the comprehensiveunderstanding of the challenges and the state of the artof current research. Experimental results demonstratethe effectiveness and robustness of the proposedalgorithm. Further the comparative evaluation withother scheduling algorithms such as First Come FirstServe (FCFS), Last Come First Serve (LCFS), EarliestDeadline First (EDF) and Tabu Search are plotted.
 Key words: grid computing, workflow, Tabu Search, scheduling problem, Probabilistic Tabu Search
 INTRODUCTIONGrid Computing a pioneer technique inharnessing the geographically dislocated computerpower has changed the perception on the utility andavailability of the computer power, which has carveda new technology that openly ventures andamalgamates an infinite number of computingdevices into any grid environment, augmenting to thecomputing capability and providing resolutions to thevarious tasks within the operational grid environmentbasically by enabling, sharing, selection andaggregation of geographically distributedautonomous resources dynamically at runtime,depending on their availability, capability,performance and cost, thereby shifting the focus tocollaborative environments, federating services andexchanging transactions in a mutual manner to shareresources and thereby achieve common goals toenhance productivity and speed up progress in muchthe same way that the Internet did in yesterdayseconomy, paving the way for numerous researchefforts in grid scheduling mechanismsGrid Computing is our greatest hope fordelivering computing as utility to homes and offices.Many large scale applications such as scientific,engineering and business problems (Hai
et al.,
2005;Cannataro
et al.,
2002) are solved effectively usingthe logical amalgamation of geographically dispersedGrid resources (Bernan
et al.,
2002). Grid computing,analogous to the pervasive electrical power grid,enables resource sharing and cooperative work among distributed computational sites.In grid environment, applications are often describedas workflows. A workflow is composed of atomictasks that are processed in specific order to fulfill acomplicated goal. Generally, grid workflows requirehuge intensive computing and process larger data,compared with traditional workflows. Therefore, theperformance of grid workflows becomes a criticalissue of the workflow management systems. One of the most challenging problems is to map each task to a corresponding service instance to achieve thecustomers’ quality of service (QoS) requirements aswell as to accomplish high performance of theworkflow. This problem is found to be NP-complete.During the course of grid scheduling there are manychallenges that require the simultaneous optimizationof several incommensurable and competingobjectives.
 
Unpredictable challenges in Grid resources
 
Inevitability to multiple resource types forcompleting a job
 
Necessitate for a parallel or concurrentexecution of tasks in any workflows.Under the OSGA, the workflow schedulerhas to balance several QoS requirements, includingmakespan and cost. Consequently, many traditionalworkflow scheduling algorithms, such asOpportunistic Load Balancing, Minimum CompletionTime, Min-min, Max-min and Duplex, are not
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010314http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
suitable since they only tackle the makespanrequirement.In recent years, a number of researches havebeen focused on scheduling problem involving morethan one QoS requirements. The traditional Systemnamely advanced reservations for scheduling theworkflows undergoes problems such as overloadingand power failure. The overloading and the schedulerfailure problem are overridden by a two levelscheduling scheme where the first level is used forfrequent small jobs and second level for large jobs.The market oriented approach algorithm succeeded indistributed scheduling of workflows, but could notappease completion of more workflows within thedeadline. The success ratio of the workflows allottedfor mapping the Grid sites is 30% (Chien et al., 2005)when 30 workflows are scheduled at a time.Workflows submitted to the ComputationalGrids by resource consumers have a proper budgetproposal, client authentication and the requirementsfor its execution as shown in Fig 1. The willingnessto complete any job is given by resource providers.Hence the Grid schedulers search for solutions in thestate space aiming at achieving high performance,both in terms of solution quality and execution speed.
Fig. 1: Job submission blueprint
Literatures have proposed a grid workflowscheduling algorithm in which cost is optimized withthe expectation to minimize the makespan.Literatures have also presented a schedulingapproach for the economics-driven grids to optimizethe cost under the deadline constraint. In fact, amixed-integer non-linear programming algorithmwas introduced to optimize the cost with theconsideration of other QoS requirements. As thescale of workflow applications becomes larger andlarger, conventional deterministic approaches mayfail to give a satisfying solution. Moreover in Gridscheduling problem, for most practical applications,any scheduler delivering good quality planning of  jobs would suffice rather than searching foroptimality. In fact, in highly dynamic Gridenvironment, there is no possibility to even defineoptimality of planning as it is defined incombinatorial optimization. This is due to the factthat Grid schedulers run as long as the Grid systemexists and thus the performance is measured not onlyfor particular applications but also in the long run. Itis well known that meta-heuristics are able tocompute in short time high quality feasible solutions.Therefore, meta-heuristic algorithms have beenreceiving growing interests due to their powerfulglobal search capability.From the above exposition we are motivatedand in this paper we apply the probabilistic Tabusearch algorithm for the generalized Grid Schedulingproblem. The basic idea behind the algorithm is touse preprocessing operations to arrive at a probabilityvalue for each vertex which roughly corresponds toits probability of being included in an optimalsolution, and to use such probability values to shrink the size of the neighborhood of solutions tomanageable proportions. We report results fromcomputational experiments that demonstrate thesuperiority of this method over the generic Tabusearch method.PROBLEM DESCRIPTIONThe Super Schedule (SSGA) GridArchitecture described with eight nodes Gridenvironment example is shown in the Fig 2. Thisarchitecture can be utilized for any practicalapplications for the normal grid environments. Thesetup is experimented in TIFAC Core in Network Engineering under DST project.The goal of the SSGA is to find theallocation sequence of workflows on each Grid site.Four major entities are involved in this architecture.
 
The grid users submit their request for jobcompletion to the local grid managers.
 
All the tasks should be received by the gridmanagers and the decision for thescheduling is made on deploying the requestto the Intra Grid schedulers.
Grid Client’s Job SubmissionClient NamePasswordCPU PowerMemoryDead LineQuality of ServiceJeny******30T flods19MB12/09/07Best Effort ServiceSubmit
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010315http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
The Intra-Grid schedulers have the updatedinformation of the grid resources that areidle during time t. This information isfrequently updated. The smaller jobs can bescheduled within their deadlines by theIntra-Grid schedulers in their respectiveAdministrative Domains. Here scheduling isoften dynamic.
 
For data intensive applications where the jobs are larger it requires the necessity of theresources worldwide. At that moment, thereis a necessity of Inter-Grid schedulers whichis static often.
Fig 2: Super Schedule Grid Architecture
 The workflow allocation strategy in a Gridenvironment differs from the traditional ones. Thegoal of the Inter-Grid Scheduler is to receive therequest from different Intra-Grid Schedulers andmake an optimistic scheduling such that itaccommodates many workflows completing withinits deadline. The following DAG workflows and thepenalty cost for each workflow are considered forexperimental purpose.
Fig 3: DAG workflow model
The duration for any workflow, penalty costincurred and the required grid resources are shown inthe Table 1.The tasks taken for experiment have theirpredecessors and successors, such as T1 follow T2 orT2, T3 and are parallel computations once the task T1 is executed.
Table 1: Experimental work flows
The Workflow model for W1, W2, W3 areshown in Fig. 3. The FCFS map tasks to the idle Gridsites based on first task arrival to serve first. The EDFalgorithm executes the tasks whose absolute deadlineis the earliest. Hence it estimates the executiondeadline of the individual workflow for anystandalone system and schedules such that theworkflows that require greater completion time isserved first. In EDF the task priorities are not fixedbut change depending on the closeness of theirabsolute deadline.The settings of the experiment consist of workflows with following assumptions:
 
Each workflow received in the Inter-GridScheduler consists of a set of Tasks T1, T2,T3 and so on.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010316http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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