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Overclocked Load Scheduling in Large Clustered Reservation Systems

Overclocked Load Scheduling in Large Clustered Reservation Systems

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Published by ijcsis
Advanced resource reservation has a great role in maintaining QoS of requests. Resource allocation and management to reservation requests for optimal utilization and guarantee of quality of service is challenging effort. When a reservation request for a resource type fails although enough free capacity might be available, there is not any chance for resolving conflicts. Inflexibility of reservation request in support of replacement on time axis, results in rigid resource utilization and even poor QoS of the system. But with the help of new overclocking technologies for doing over-clocking on some current scheduled reservation chunks, new chances emerge to beat these restrictions [1]. Using strict overclocking schema with traditional processors in limited time in cluster of servers, simulation results show QoS of reservations could be improved. This is came through with improvement to utilizing of resources and increasing accepted reservations without any side effects on processing and reliability of computations.
Advanced resource reservation has a great role in maintaining QoS of requests. Resource allocation and management to reservation requests for optimal utilization and guarantee of quality of service is challenging effort. When a reservation request for a resource type fails although enough free capacity might be available, there is not any chance for resolving conflicts. Inflexibility of reservation request in support of replacement on time axis, results in rigid resource utilization and even poor QoS of the system. But with the help of new overclocking technologies for doing over-clocking on some current scheduled reservation chunks, new chances emerge to beat these restrictions [1]. Using strict overclocking schema with traditional processors in limited time in cluster of servers, simulation results show QoS of reservations could be improved. This is came through with improvement to utilizing of resources and increasing accepted reservations without any side effects on processing and reliability of computations.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.4, 2010
Overclocked Load Scheduling in Large ClusteredReservation Systems
 
Tania Taami
Islamic Azad University,Science and Research Branch,Tehran, Irant.taami@srbiau.ac.ir 
Amir Masoud Rahmani
Islamic Azad University,Science and Research Branch,Tehran, Iranrahmani@sr.iau.ac.ir 
Ahmad Khademzade
Islamic Azad University,Science and Research Branch,Tehran, IranZadeh@itrc.ac.ir 
Ismail Ataie
Jam Petro. Complex,Tehran, Iranataie.ismail@gmail.com
 Abstract
 — 
Advanced resource reservation has a great role inmaintaining QoS of requests. Resource allocation andmanagement to reservation requests for optimal utilizationand guarantee of quality of service is challenging effort. Whena reservation request for a resource type fails although enoughfree capacity might be available, there is not any chance forresolving conflicts. Inflexibility of reservation request insupport of replacement on time axis, results in rigid resourceutilization and even poor QoS of the system. But with the helpof new overclocking technologies for doing over-clocking onsome current scheduled reservation chunks, new chancesemerge to beat these restrictions [1]. Using strict overclockingschema with traditional processors in limited time in cluster of servers, simulation results show QoS of reservations could beimproved. This is came through with improvement to utilizingof resources and increasing accepted reservations without anyside effects on processing and reliability of computations.
 Keywords-scheduling; overclocking; thermal behaviour; advance reservation; cluster; QoS;
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
In center of any collection system should be a scheduler to manage and allocate resources to the clients in appropriatetime. Once of most essential resources in any system, either single or orchestrated system is processing unit. Acceptingand scheduling requests in appropriate time on appropriatenodes is challenging effort of scheduler. In this paper weconcentrate on overclocking computing resource to beatunderutilized resources and improving QoS of reservations.Previously, many efforts have been done for schedulingin clusters or grid systems [2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11] and alsoscheduling with over-clocking capabilities in single nodesystems for real-time (periodic and aperiodic) jobs [1, 5], butno studies about the integration of these yet.In reliable overclocking, computing resource should becontrolled so that does not pass the thermal threshold of equipment [1]. In this paper is introduced simple model of reliable overclocking processors, either overcomecomplexity of real thermal model of processors that impactany algorithms in real time and either reduce complexity of computation of thermal radiated from processors that alsoreduce computation time of any stage of algorithm.Physical architectural model of computing nodes is acluster of nodes that connected by a shared back bone [12].Any workload is divided in two subdivisions. In the firstdivision workload is deployed to node or nodes and in thesecond division workload(s) is started and continued up toits end. After transferring workload(s) to target(s),computation starts and terminates until end of its workload.Two constraints exist on this model: computation capacity of nodes and bandwidth capacity of infrastructure of network.Using overclocking any reservations or allocation oncomputing nodes could be relocated, finish times.Computing resources overclocking needs awareness of troubles that might be introduced in reliability of results andon hardware chips. On the other hand, solving thermalequations of node material is costly in real time scheduler [1]. So, for improving the schedulers we need a simple anddependable model to utilize capabilities of resources.The layout of this letter will be as follows: section
ІІ
willdescribe system model, reservation model, overclockingconcepts and strict overclocking schema. In section
ІІІ
wewill propose an algorithm that combined overclocking andscheduling mechanisms into harmony. We will evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm with the simulation andresults in section IV. Finally, in section V we present our conclusions of algorithms and proposed over-clockingschema.II.
 
M
ODELS AND OVERCLOCKING CONCEPTS
 
 A.
 
System Model 
In this paper we choose system models of [12]. At thismoment, briefly describe this model.In this model we have one type of requests: reservationrequests. according definition any reservation request R hasfive parameters: Rc, Rs, Re, n, Rio, where Rc is coming timeof reservation request, Rs is start time of reservation, Re isend time of reservation, n is number of processing units thatshould be served for reservation and Rio is aspect of time isrequired to transferring reservation request to processingunits. In this model requests should be guaranteed toserviced with n processing unit, in interval Rs and Re.Reserves could not coming in system earlier than Rc time
320http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.4, 2010
 but could out of system earlier than Re time if all of workshave been done on computing nodes.The system model in this paper is considered as a cluster of nodes that connected by a single and shared media backbone, similar to a LAN network. A cluster consist of one coordinator node and n agent nodes A1, A2, ..,An. thecoordinator node receives requests, reservations, and possibly plans to schedule request on agent nodes by itsscheduler module. In a different way, each agent node alsohas two major parts: local scheduler and processor frequencycontroller. The coordinator's scheduler dispatches schedulingtimetables and requests that should be ran on node, to agentschedulers. According received timetables local
 
scheduler give control of processing unit to request, the reservation.Figure 1 shows structure of cluster of nodes with a master or coordinator for managing several agent nodes that allconnected to single backbone.
 
According to this model of computation, there are tworesource, computing resource and network resource. Basedon these two types of resources, there are conflicts onaccessing and utilization them. First conflict appears whenany two or more request want exclusively access thenetwork media for communicating and deploying workloadto destination node. Only one of them could access thenetwork and transfer its data to destination node. Another resource is computing power of the nodes. When a requestwants completely access to the node, intended for uses it for  processing purposes in some time interval, other requestscould not access it until end of processing time of currentrequest on it.
Figure 1. Topology of cluster of nodes with a coordinator and many agentnodes.
 B.
 
Thermal Model 
Relation between processor speed and thermal behavior of any chip can be approximated by the followingequation[1]:
 RT(t)(t)
κ 
 s=(t)
α
 

 Where T(t) is temperature at time
and
 s(t)
is speed of  processor at time
. the parameters
 R
and
are the thermalresistance and capacitance of chips, respectively (with fan or any peripheral attached to chip, like heat sink).The parameter 
 
 
and
 
  
relate power consumption of  processor to its speed. The
 
 
parameter has a value of roughly 3.0 [1,3]. For safety of system, processor temperature should not reach to critical point of temperature,due to damaging effects on chip operation.According to thermal model in the (1), we can derivefollowing (2) for calculating temperature at any point of time[1,3]:
τ 
 F  F  E 
 )e(T +=
/0
(2)
 
Where in general
 
  
 F  F 
 s R=
is steady state temperature atoverclocking speed of 
 s
 F 
and
 
  
 E  E 
 s R=
is temperature at between times with speed of 
 s
 E 
after elapsed t unit of time,and
0
is the temperature at lowest level at the start time.Parameter 
is equal to
 R·C 
and t is elapsed time of time thattemperature was
0
.By this equation, we can calculate the t value:
 )
τ 
=
 H  E  H o
ln
 
(3)
 
To avoiding complex and time consuming computationsat run time on scheduler, we utilize simple and effectivestrict overclocking schema. Consequently, in this schema,we exploited three phases in support of CPU frequencyscaling, under-clocked phase, normal clocked phase andoverclocked phase. In under-clocking phase (i.e. idle mode)frequency of processor is reduced to minimum availablevalue which results in reduced temperature to near theminimum possible value. In the over-clocking phasetransiently frequency of processor is increased to maximumvalue until temperature reach to normal point. Finally in thenormal-clocking phase frequency backs to nominal it tocontinue probably reminded workload of request.Considering the temperature is not above normal, reliabilityand continuity of computing operations are preserved. Alsowe cover two working modes in the schema, normal loadmode and idle load mode. To reducing temperature morequickly in idle mode we never deploy any workload to the processor that keeps temperature and frequency in lowestlimit, i.e. under-clocking phase. We exploit this situation dueto expanding succeeding overclocking interval to themaximum possible value. Using the (3) we can calculate tand ratio of under-clocking to over-clocking periods.
LocalSchedulerFrequencycontroller
III.
 
A
LGORITHM
 In this section we introduce a scheduling algorithm thatuses described strict overclocking schema in situationswhere conflicts are appeared between current reservationrequest and previous guaranteed and scheduled requests,reservations parts, is discovered.As previously described, for overclocking any time period of the processors, we elaborate the three step strictoverclocking schema: in first step, node processor get under-clocking frequency with idle workload, in the second, thenode get overclocking frequency, and last, the node getnormal clocking frequency. Only the timeslots of processor 
GlobalSchedulerLocalScheduler
Agent node
1
Coordinator node
Frequencycontroller
Agent node
n
321http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.4, 2010
could be overclocked if exists enough timeslot before it thathasn't been allocated to any request.
 // reserve nodes with overclocking 
15
 
for
i=1
to
R.n - #AvailabeNodes
In following algorithms there are two overclockingapproach: other-overclocking and self-overclocking. Inother-overclocking approach, timeslot of processor belong toother previous requests, the reservations, is overclocked. Butin self-overclocking approach, current request on nodes isoverclocked.
16
RE=EligiblesAlloc
i
.R 
17
 
= min((RE.R 
e
-RE.R 
s
-RE.R 
io
), maxOCTime)*OCRate;
18
EligibleAllocs
i
.interval.start -= T
idle
;
19
EligibleAllocs
i
.interval.end -=
;
20
updateAllocOnNode(EligibleAllocs
i
.node,EligibleAllocs
i
);
21
allocateNode(EligibleAllocs
i
.node, R.R 
s
, R.R 
e
, R);
22
 
end for;
 
The
doReserve
algorithm (Fig. 2) firstly tries to schedulereservation R in cluster of nodes, without over-clocking. If it could not proceed, tries to apply overclocking techniques.The
doReserveWithOverClock 
algorithm (Fig. 3) implements astrict overclocking schema that previously has beenexplained. First it finds eligible nodes; the nodes could beoverclocked during period of some scheduled jobs or reservations. If it could schedule by available nodes withnormal clocking and overclocking other possible nodes,either self-overclocking or other-overclocking, it proceeds,otherwise it fails. Value of 
is amount of time that the endof request goes back because of overclocking. The T
idle
 
 parameter is the required time for period of under-clockingwith idle workload.
23 return
 true
;
24
 
else
 // find nodes that have self OverClocking condition for  // Reservation R
25
selfOCNodes
 

26 for
i=1 to n
27 if 
(isFree(node
i
, R.R 
s
- T
idle
, R.R 
e
-(
))
28
selfOCNodes +=node
i
;
29 end for30 if 
(#EligibleAllocs+ #selfOCNodes+#AvailabeNodes

R.n)
31
reserveNodes
(AvailabeNodes, R, # AvailabeNodes);
 // reserve nodes for R reservation with overclocking other  // scheduled requests
32 for
i=1
to
R.n - #AvailabeNodes
33
RE=EligiblesAlloc
i
.R 
boolean
 
doReserve
(R)
1
 
if 
(
isFreeIO
(R.R 
s
, (R.R 
e
- R.R 
s
)·R.R 
io
) ==
 false
)
34
 
= min((RE.R 
e
-RE.R 
s
-RE.R 
io
),maxOCTime)*OCRate;
35
EligibleAllocs
i
.interval.start -= T
idle
;
2 return
 
 false
;
36
EligibleAllocs
i
.interval.end -=
;
3
AvailabeNodes
 
 findAvailabeNodes
(R.R 
s
, R.Re)
;37
updateAllocOnNode(EligibleAllocs
i
.node,
4 if 
(#AvailableNodes < R.n)EligibleAllocs
i
);
5
 
return
 
doReserveWithOverClock 
(R);
38
allocateNode(EligibleAllocs
i
.node, R.R 
s
, R.R 
e
, R);
6
 
else
 
reserveNodes
(AvailabeNodes, R.R 
s
, R.R 
e
, R.n);
39
 
end for;7
 
return
 
 true
;
 // reserve nodes for R Reservation with Overclocking R itself 
40
 
for
i=1
to
R.n- (#EligibleAllocs+ #AvailabeNodes)
41
 
= min((R.R 
e
-R.R 
s
-R.R 
io
), maxOCTime)*OCRate;
42
allocStartTime = R.R 
s
- T
idle
;
Figure 2. Top level of reservation algorithm
43
allocEndTime= R.R 
e
-
;
44
allocateNode(node
i
, allocStartTime, allocEndTime, R);
45
 
end for;46 return
 true
;
47 end if;
 
boolean
 
doReserveWithOverClock 
(R)
 // find and set Eligible Allocation scheduled slot of nodes for 
48 end if;
 // overcloking 
49 return
 
 false
;
1
EligibleAllocs
 

2
 
for
i = 1
to
n
3
Alloc
i
=null;4
 
=min((R.R 
e
-R.R 
s
-R.R 
io
), maxOCTime)*OCRate;
5
 
if 
(R 
id
=
cpuOverlap
(node
i
, R.R 
s
, R.R 
e
)) !=
 null 
 
and5.1
 
isFree
(node
i
, R 
id
.R 
s
-T
idle
-R 
id
.R 
io
, R 
id
.R 
s
)
and5.2
(R 
id
.R 
e
-
)
Rs
and
 
5.3
 
isFree
(node
i
, R 
id
.R 
e
, R.R 
e
) )
6
TimeInterval
node
i
, R 
( R 
id
.R 
s
- T
idl
, R.R 
e
-
);
7
Alloc
i
= (node
i
, R 
id
, TimeInterval
node
i
, R 
);
8
 
end if;
 
9
 
if 
(Alloc
i
!=
null
)
10
eligibleAllocs
eligibleAllocs + Alloc
i
;
11
 
end for12
AvailabeNodes
 
 findAvailabeNodes
(R.R 
s
, R.R 
e
);
13 if (
#EligibleAllocs + #AvailabeNodes

R.n)
14
reserveNodes
(AvailabeNodes, R, #AvailabeNodes);
Figure 3. Strict over-clocking schedular algorithm
Overclocking schema could be applied on start time of computation until end time of it. That is to say, overclockingcouldn't be applied on communication part of request because communication time of any request depended tonetwork specification of cluster (i.e. bandwidth) and couldnot be altered or increased without changing physicalcharacteristics of underlying network's components.IV.
 
P
ERFORMANCE
E
VALUATION
 For analysis of mentioned strict overclocking schema,we simulate a cluster of nodes with varying processingnodes and reservation requests. In all simulations, maximumnumber of requested nodes by any reservation request isnumber of nodes in cluster. The reservation requests deploywe simulate a cluster of nodes with varying processingnodes and reservation requests. In all simulations, maximumnumber of requested nodes by any reservation request isnumber of nodes in cluster. The reservation requests deploy
322http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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