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Handbook - Soap Manufacture

Handbook - Soap Manufacture

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Published by: Nihilist on Aug 13, 2010
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SOAP MANUFACTURE
BY
W. H. SIMMONS, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S.
AND
H. A. APPLETON
WITH TWENTY-SEVEN ILLUSTRATIONS
LONDONSCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON"THE OIL AND COLOUR TRADES JOURNAL" OFFICES8 BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL, E.C.1908[
 All rights reserved 
]Transcriber's note:Footnotes have been moved to the end of the chapter and minor typos have been corrected.[Pg iii]
PREFACE
In the general advance of technical knowledge and research during the last decade, the Soap Industry has notremained stationary. While there has not perhaps been anything of a very revolutionary character, steadyprogress has still been made in practically all branches, and the aim of the present work is to describe themanufacture of Household and Toilet Soaps as carried out to-day in an up-to-date and well-equipped factory.In the more scientific portions of the book, an acquaintance with the principles of elementary chemistry isassumed, and in this we feel justified, as in these days of strenuous competition, no soap-maker can hope tocompete successfully with his rivals unless he has a sound theoretical as well as practical knowledge of thenature of the raw materials he uses, and the reactions taking place in the pan, or at other stages of themanufacture. We also venture to hope that the work may prove useful to Works' Chemists and other Analystsconsulted in connection with this Industry.At the same time, in the greater part of the book no chemical knowledge is necessary, the subject being treatedin such a way that it is hoped those who are not directly engaged in the manufacture of soap, but who desire ageneral idea of the subject, will find it of value.In the sections dealing with the composition and analysis of materials, temperatures are expressed in degreesCentigrade, these being now almost invariably used in scientific work. In the rest of the book, however, theyare given in degrees Fahrenheit (the degrees Centigrade being also added in brackets), as in the majority of factories these are still used.SOAP MANUFACTURE1
 
As regards strengths of solution, in some factories the use of Baumé degrees is preferred, whilst in othersTwaddell degrees are the custom, and we have therefore given the two figures in all cases.[Pg iv]In the chapter dealing with Oils and Fats, their Saponification Equivalents are given in preference toSaponification Values, as it has been our practice for some years to express our results in this way, assuggested by Allen in
Commercial Organic Analysis
, and all our records, from which most of the figures forthe chief oils and fats are taken, are so stated.For the illustrations, the authors are indebted to Messrs. E. Forshaw & Son, Ltd., H. D. Morgan, and W. J.Fraser & Co., Ltd.W. H. S.H. A. A.London,
September 
, 1908.[Pg v]
CONTENTS
PAGECHAPTER I.Introduction.1Definition of Soap—PropertiesHydrolysisDetergent Action.CHAPTER II.Constitution of Oils and Fats, and their Saponification 6Researches of Chevreul and BerthelotMixed GlyceridesModern Theories of SaponificationHydrolysisaccelerated by (1) Heat or Electricity, (2) Ferments, Castor-seed Ferment, Steapsin, Emulsin, and (3)Chemical Reagents, Sulphuric Acid, Twitchell's Reagent, Hydrochloric Acid, Lime, Magnesia, Zinc Oxide,Soda and Potash.CHAPTER III.Raw Materials used in Soap-making 24Fats and OilsWaste FatsFatty AcidsLess-known Oils and Fats of Limited UseVarious New Fats andOils Suggested for Soap-makingRosinAlkali (Caustic and Carbonated)WaterSaltSoap-stock.CHAPTER IV.Bleaching and Treatment of Raw Materials intended for Soap-making 41The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Handbook of Soap Manufacture, by W. H. Simmons and H. A. Appleton.PREFACE2
 
Palm OilCotton-seed OilCotton-seed "Foots"Vegetable OilsAnimal FatsBone FatRosin.CHAPTER V.Soap-making 45Classification of SoapsDirect combination of Fatty Acids with AlkaliCold ProcessSoapsSaponification under Increased or Diminished PressureSoft SoapMarine SoapHydrated Soaps,Smooth and[Pg vi]MarbledPasting or SaponificationGraining OutBoiling on StrengthFittingCurdSoaps—Curd Mottled—Blue and Grey Mottled Soaps—Milling Base—YellowHousehold Soaps—Resting of Pans and Settling of Soap—Utilisation of Nigres—Transparent soaps—Saponifying Mineral Oil—Electrical Production of Soap.CHAPTER VI.Treatment of Settled Soap 60Cleansing—Crutching—Liquoring of Soaps—Filling—Neutralising, Colouring andPerfuming—Disinfectant Soaps—Framing—Slabbing—Barring—Open andClose Piling—Drying—Stamping—Cooling.CHAPTER VII.Toilet, Textile and Miscellaneous Soaps 77Toilet Soaps—Cold Process soaps—Settled Boiled Soaps—RemeltedSoaps—Milled Soaps—Drying—Milling and Incorporating Colour, Perfume, orMedicament—Perfume—Colouring matter—Neutralising and SuperfattingMaterial—Compressing—Cutting—Stamping—Medicated Soaps—EtherSoap—Floating Soaps—Shaving Soaps—Textile Soaps—Soaps for Woollen,Cotton and Silk Industries—Patent Textile Soaps—Miscellaneous Soaps.CHAPTER VIII.Soap Perfumes 95Essential Oils—Source and Preparation—Properties—Artificial and Synthetic Perfumes.CHAPTER IX.Glycerine Manufacture and Purification 111Treatment of Lyes—Evaporation to Crude Glycerine—Distillation—Distilled andDynamite Glycerine—Chemically Pure Glycerine—Animal Charcoal forDecolorisation—Glycerine obtained by other methods of Saponification—Yield of GlycerineThe Project Gutenberg eBook of The Handbook of Soap Manufacture, by W. H. Simmons and H. A. Appleton.CONTENTS3

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