139.Most major metabolic pathways are considered to be either mainly anabolic or catabolic.Which of the following pathways is most correctly considered to be amphibolic?A. LipolysisB. GlycolysisC. oxidation of fatty acidsD. Citric acid cycleE. Gluconeogenesis
The answer is: D
In general, the corresponding pathways of catabolism and anabolism are not identical(glycolysis versus gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and oxidation of fatty acids versus fattyacid synthesis and lipogenesis, glycogenolysis versus glycogenesis). However, the citricacid cycle is a central pathway from which anabolic precursors of biosynthetic reactionsmay derive or into which the complete catabolism of small molecules to carbon dioxideand water may occur. For these reasons, the citric acid cycle is often called an amphibolic pathway.140.If a homogenate of liver cells is centrifuged to remove all cell membranes and organelles,which of the following enzyme activities will remain in the homogenate?A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseB. Glycogen synthetaseC. AconitaseD. Acyl CoA hydrataseE. Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
The answer is: A
Centrifugation of a cellular homogenate at a force of 100,000 ×
will pellet all cellular organelles and membranes. Only soluble cellular molecules found in the cytosol willremain in the supernatant. Thus, the enzymes of glycolysis and most of those of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway will be in thesupernatant. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which results in the formation of 6- phosphoglucono--lactone from glucose-6-phosphate, is the committed step in the pentose phosphate pathway. In the pellet will be the enzymes within mitochondria,including those of the citric acid cycle (aconitase), fatty acid oxidation (acyl CoAhydratase), and ketogenesis (hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase). Enzymes of glycogendegradation and synthesis (glycogen synthetase) will also be in the pellet associated withglycogen particles.141.Which of the following is appropriate for a patient with renal failure?