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SUG514 - Hydrographic Surveying - NMEA

SUG514 - Hydrographic Surveying - NMEA

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Published by Muhammad Ruzaini

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Published by: Muhammad Ruzaini on Aug 14, 2010
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11/24/2012

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220)
ASSIGNMENT 3HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING (SUG514) NMEA _________________________________________________________________________________________________________  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page
1
of 
7
 
1.0 WHAT IS NMEA?
NMEA is the acronyms stands for The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) which is a non-profit association of manufacturers, distributors, dealers, educational institutions, and others interested inperipheral marine electronics occupations.The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) has developed a standard over 20 years ago thatdefines the interface between various pieces of marine electronic equipment and navigational computers,allowing them to talk together and share vital information.
2.0 NMEA 0183 STANDARDS
The NMEA 0183 Interface Standards is a voluntary industry standard, first released in March of 1983. Ithas been updated from time to time, the latest release, currently (January 2002) Version 4.0.The NMEA 0183 is a combined electrical and data specification for communication between marineelectronic devices. The NMEA 0183 standard uses a simple printable ASCII form and serialcommunications protocol that defines how data is transmitted in a "sentence" from one "talker" to multiple"listeners" at a time. The data may include information such as position, speed, depth, frequencyallocation, etc.NMEA data is transmitted from an information source such as a GPS, echo sounder, or gyro compassetc. These data sending devices are called “
Talkers
”. Equipment receiving this information such as achart-plotter, radar, PC or NMEA display is called a “
Listener 
”.The NMEA 0183 standard defines the interface speed can be adjusted on some models but the NMEAstandard is
4800 b/s
(bit per second rate) with
8 bits of data, no parity, one stop bit (or more) andnone handshake.
(At 4800 b/s it can only send 480 characters in one second)
 
NMEA output is EIA-422A but for most purposes it can consider RS-232 compatible
MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220)
ASSIGNMENT 3HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING (SUG514) NMEA _________________________________________________________________________________________________________  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page
1
of 
7
 
1.0 WHAT IS NMEA?
NMEA is the acronyms stands for The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) which is a non-profit association of manufacturers, distributors, dealers, educational institutions, and others interested inperipheral marine electronics occupations.The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) has developed a standard over 20 years ago thatdefines the interface between various pieces of marine electronic equipment and navigational computers,allowing them to talk together and share vital information.
2.0 NMEA 0183 STANDARDS
The NMEA 0183 Interface Standards is a voluntary industry standard, first released in March of 1983. Ithas been updated from time to time, the latest release, currently (January 2002) Version 4.0.The NMEA 0183 is a combined electrical and data specification for communication between marineelectronic devices. The NMEA 0183 standard uses a simple printable ASCII form and serialcommunications protocol that defines how data is transmitted in a "sentence" from one "talker" to multiple"listeners" at a time. The data may include information such as position, speed, depth, frequencyallocation, etc.NMEA data is transmitted from an information source such as a GPS, echo sounder, or gyro compassetc. These data sending devices are called “
Talkers
”. Equipment receiving this information such as achart-plotter, radar, PC or NMEA display is called a “
Listener 
”.The NMEA 0183 standard defines the interface speed can be adjusted on some models but the NMEAstandard is
4800 b/s
(bit per second rate) with
8 bits of data, no parity, one stop bit (or more) andnone handshake.
(At 4800 b/s it can only send 480 characters in one second)
 
NMEA output is EIA-422A but for most purposes it can consider RS-232 compatible
MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220)
ASSIGNMENT 3HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING (SUG514) NMEA _________________________________________________________________________________________________________  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page
1
of 
7
 
1.0 WHAT IS NMEA?
NMEA is the acronyms stands for The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) which is a non-profit association of manufacturers, distributors, dealers, educational institutions, and others interested inperipheral marine electronics occupations.The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) has developed a standard over 20 years ago thatdefines the interface between various pieces of marine electronic equipment and navigational computers,allowing them to talk together and share vital information.
2.0 NMEA 0183 STANDARDS
The NMEA 0183 Interface Standards is a voluntary industry standard, first released in March of 1983. Ithas been updated from time to time, the latest release, currently (January 2002) Version 4.0.The NMEA 0183 is a combined electrical and data specification for communication between marineelectronic devices. The NMEA 0183 standard uses a simple printable ASCII form and serialcommunications protocol that defines how data is transmitted in a "sentence" from one "talker" to multiple"listeners" at a time. The data may include information such as position, speed, depth, frequencyallocation, etc.NMEA data is transmitted from an information source such as a GPS, echo sounder, or gyro compassetc. These data sending devices are called “
Talkers
”. Equipment receiving this information such as achart-plotter, radar, PC or NMEA display is called a “
Listener 
”.The NMEA 0183 standard defines the interface speed can be adjusted on some models but the NMEAstandard is
4800 b/s
(bit per second rate) with
8 bits of data, no parity, one stop bit (or more) andnone handshake.
(At 4800 b/s it can only send 480 characters in one second)
 
NMEA output is EIA-422A but for most purposes it can consider RS-232 compatible
 
MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220)
ASSIGNMENT 3HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING (SUG514) NMEA _________________________________________________________________________________________________________  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page
2
of 
7
 
3.0 NMEA SENTENCES
The Diagram shows the setting of NMEA default parameters and the NMEA Sentences
All data is transmitted in the form of 
sentences
. Only printable ASCII characters are allowed, plus carriagereturn (CR) and line feed (LF). Each sentence starts with a "$" sign and ends with <CR><LF> and can beno longer than 80 characters.All of the standard sentences have a
two letter prefix
that defines the device that uses that
’sentencetype’
and followed by a
three letter sequence
that defines the
’sentence contents’
. (E.g. GPGGA: GPis prefix for GPS receiver and GGA is prefix for GPS fix data).All data fields that follow are comma-delimited. Where data is unavailable, the corresponding field wouldcontained
NUL
bytes (e.g., in "123,,456", the second field's data is unavailable).There is a requirement for checksum at the end of some sentence. The checksum field consists of a '*'and two hex digits representing an 8 bit exclusive OR of all characters between the '$' and '*' sentence.(E.g. $GPGGA,123519,4807.038,N,01131.000,E,1,08,0.9,545.4,M,46.9,M,,*47)
 
 
MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220)
ASSIGNMENT 3HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING (SUG514) NMEA _________________________________________________________________________________________________________  _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page
3
of 
7
 
There are three basic kinds of sentences:1. Talker Sentences2. Query Sentences3. Proprietary Sentences
3.1 Talker Sentences
 The general format for a talker sentence is:
$ttsss,d1,d2,....<CR><LF>
 
The first two letters following the “$” are the
talker identifier 
.
The next three characters (sss) are the
sentence identifier 
,
followed by a number of 
data fields
separated by commas,
followed by an optional
checksum
,
and terminated by carriage return/line feed.An example talker sentence is:
$HCHDM,238,M<CR><LF>
"HC" specifies the talker as being a magnetic compass,
the "HDM" specifies the magnetic heading message follows.
The "238" is the heading value and,
"M" designates the heading value as magnetic.
3.2 Query sentences
 A query sentence is a means for a listener to request a particular sentence from a talker. The generalformat is:
$ttllQ,sss,[CR][LF] 
The first two characters of the address field are the talker identifier of the requester. (
tt 
)
the next two characters are the talker identifier of the device being queried (listener). (
II 
)
The fifth character is always a "Q" defining the message as a query.
The next field (sss) contains the three letter mnemonic of the sentence being requested.An example query sentence is:
$CCGPQ,GGA<CR><LF>
 
the "CC" device (computer) is requesting from the "GP" device (a GPS unit) the "GGA" sentence.
The GPS will then transmit this sentence once per second until a different query is requested.

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