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Pneumonia San Lazaro

Pneumonia San Lazaro

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Published by: lynnmalic on Aug 16, 2010
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10/25/2012

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Pneumoniais a serious infection or inflammation of one or both lungs.
Description of Pneumonia
Pneumoniais caused by the inhalation of infected microorganisms (tiny, single-celled livingorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa) spread through contact with an infected person. The microorganisms enter the body through the mouth, nose and eyes. If the body'sresistance is down, the natural process of fighting off diseases is weakened and themicroorganisms are free to spread into the lungs and the lungs' air sacs. The air sacs becomefilled with fluid and pus from the infectious agent, making it more difficult for the body to getthe oxygen it needs, and the person may become sick.Potential complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion (fluid around the lung), empyema(pus in the pleural cavity), hyponatremia (low blood sodium) and rarely, anabscessin the lung.
Causes of Pneumonia
There are over 30 different causes of  pneumonia, but the most common causes are bacteria(including mycoplasma) and viruses. Corresponding to these causes are the most common typesof pneumonia - bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumonia.
Bacterial pneumonia
 Pneumonia-causing bacteria is present in many throats, but when the body's defenses areweakened (for example, by illness, old age, malnutrition or impaired immunity) the bacteria canmultiply, working its way into the lungs, inflaming the air sacs and filling the lungs with liquidand pus. The bacteria that cause bacterial pneumonia are streptococcus pneumonia (resulting inlobar pneumonia), hemophilusinfluenza(resulting in bronchopneumonia), legionella pneumophilia (resulting inLegionnaires' disease) and staphylococcus aureus.
Viral pneumonia
 Half of all pneumonias are believed to be caused by viruses, such as influenza (flu), adenovirus,coxsackievirus, chickenpox,measles, cytomegalovirus andrespiratory syncytial virus. These viruses invade the lungs and multiply.
Mycoplasmal pneumonia (also called "walking pneumonia")
 Similar to bacterial pneumonia, the mycoplasmas multiply and spread, causing infection.
 
Some of the other pneumonia-related disorders are aspiration pneumonia, chlamydial pneumonia, Loffler's syndrome, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pediatric pneumonia andnecrotizing pneumonia.Risk factors include:
y
 
65
years of age or older 
y
 
People in nursing homes or other chronic care facilities
y
 
M
ale
y
 
Children under the age of two
y
 
People with colds or other respiratory infections
y
 
People with reduced immunity
y
 
People with other lung diseases, such asasthma,cystic fibrosisandlung cancer  
y
 
People with AIDS or HIV
y
 
O
rgan transplant recipients
y
 
People who have had their spleen removed
y
 
People receivingchemotherapy 
y
 
People who smoke
y
 
Alcoholics
y
 
People with chronic health problems, such as lung disease,heart disease, kidneydisorders, sickle cellanemiaor diabetes 
S
ymptoms of Pneumonia
Symptoms vary, depending on the type of  pneumoniaand the individual.With
bacterial pneumonia
, the person may experience:
y
 
shaking
y
 
chills
y
 
chattering teeth
y
 
severe chest pain
y
 
cough that produces rust-colored or greenish mucus
y
 
very high fever 
y
 
sweating
y
 
rapid breathing
y
 
rapid pulse rateWith
v
iral pneumonia
, the person may experience:
y
 
fever 
y
 
dry cough
y
 
headache 
 
y
 
muscle pain and weaknessThese flu-like symptoms may be followed within one or two days by:
y
 
increasing breathlessness
y
 
dry cough becomes worse and produces a small amount of mucus
y
 
higher fever 
y
 
 bluish color to the lipsWith
mycoplasma pneumonia
, the person may experience:
y
 
violent coughing attacks
y
 
chills
y
 
fever 
y
 
nausea
y
 
vomiting
y
 
slow heartbeat
y
 
 breathlessness
y
 
 bluish color to lips and nailbeds
y
 
diarrhea 
y
 
rash
y
 
muscle achesRegardless of the type of pneumonia, the person may also experience the following symptoms:
y
 
a loss in appetite
y
 
feeling ill
y
 
clammy skin
y
 
nasal flaring
y
 
fatigue
y
 
mental confusion
y
 
 j
oint and muscle stiffness
y
 
anxiety,stressand tension
y
 
abdominal pain
Diagnosis of Pneumonia
To diagnose pneumonia, the doctor begins with a medical history and physical examination. By placing a stethoscope on the chest, the doctor may be able to hear crackling sounds, coarse breathing, wheezing and/or the breathing may be faint in a particular area of the chest.Additionally, the doctor may order a chest x-ray, a sputum gram stain and a blood test. The chestx-ray may show a blotchy-white area, where fluid and pus has accumulated in the lung's air sacs.The sputum grain stain and the blood test may determine the cause and severity of the condition.

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