Technology White Paper on NGN Protocols
Switching Division, TEC Page 3 of 15
A standard IP stack:
The function of IP stack is to deliver IP packets where they aresupposed to go. IP is considered as the most suitable protocol for transportation ofmessages. It provides an efficient way to transport user data.
A common signalling transport protocol:
A protocol that supports reliable transfer of datais required for signalling transport functions. A new protocol, SCTP (Stream ControlTransmission Protocol) is designed by IETF to transport SCN signalling messages over IPnetworks. It operates on the top of IP at the same level as TCP. Although TCP providesreliable transfer of data through acknowledgement mechanism and order of transmissiondelivery through sequence mechanism, but it imposes several limitations for new emergingapplications. For example some applications require reliable transfer of data withoutsequence mechanisms and some require partial ordering of data. Moreover TCP is notappropriate for real time applications since it adds unnecessary delay.SCTP's basic service is connection oriented reliable transfer of messages between peerSCTP users. SCTP supports multi-homing and multi-streaming.
is the ability of an association (i.e a connection) to support multiple IPaddresses or interfaces at a given end point. In case of network failures, use of more thanone address could allow re-routing of packets, and also provide an alternate path forretransmissions. A single port number is used across the entire address list at an endpointfor a specific session.
Allows for multiple virtual connections on the same physical line. Eachuser application might be assigned its own stream (virtual connection). SCTP's multi-streaming allows data to be delivered in multiple, independent streams, so that if there isdata loss in one stream, delivery will not be affected for the other streams. The SCTP usercan specify at association startup time the number of streams to be supported by theassociation.SCTP transport service can be fragmented into following functionalities:
Acknowledged error-free non-duplicated transfer of user data.
Data fragmentation to conform to discovered path MTU size.*
Sequenced delivery of user messages within multiple streams, with an option for order-of-arrival delivery of individual user messages.
Optional bundling of multiple-user messages into a single SCTP packet.
Network-level fault tolerance through supporting of multi-homing at either or both ends ofan association.
An Adaptation layer:
The function of the adaptation layer is to provide the same functions toits upper layer in IP network as provided by the corresponding layer in SCN protocol stack.Fore example M3UA provides the equivalent set of primitives at its upper layer as provided bythe MTP3 to its local MTP3 users at the SS7 signalling end point. In this way ISUP/SCCPlayers are not aware that the expected services are offered remotely from an MTP3 layer atan SG and not by a local MTP3 layer and vice versa. Protocols defined for this layer areM2PA, M2UA, M3UA, SUA, IUA and V5UA, however, exact use of Adaptation Layer Protocoldepends upon the application and implementation in the network.*
When one IP host has a large amount of data to send to another host, the data is transmitted as a series of IP datagrams. It is usually preferable that thesedatagrams be of the largest size that does not require fragmentation anywhere along the path from the source to the destination. This datagram size isreferred to as the Path MTU (PMU), and it is equal to the minimum of the MTUs of each hop in the path. When needed, SCTP fragments user messages toensure that the SCTP packet passed to the lower layer conforms to the path MTU On receipt, fragments are reassembled into complete messages beforebeing passed to the SCTP user.