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Ref.5 NGN Protocols

Ref.5 NGN Protocols

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Published by: harit_ec on Aug 16, 2010
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06/01/2013

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Technology White Paper
Switching Division, TEC 
NGN PROTOCOLS
INTRODUCTION
 NGN architecture is characterised by the separation of service, transport and control layers,which are inter connected by open interfaces and use standards protocols. Legacy TDMnetworks are interconnected with NGN via interfaces based on open standards and protocols.This paper on ‘NGN Protocols’ describes some of the standard protocols used in NGNarchitecture.A protocol is set of rules that govern the control connections,
HT
communication
TH
s and
HT
data
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 transfer between two computing devices. A protocol stack denotes a specific combination ofprotocols that work together.A protocol stack typically used in NGN is shown in figure 1.
·
 
Figure 2 shows how the protocols shown in figure 1 are used for signalling and mediastreams in NGN environment.Control signalling messages are transported using SIGTRAN, H.248, SIP, H.323 etc. whichare summerised in Annexure -1.Media streams, which consist of audio, video or data, or a combination of any of them,convey user or application data (i.e., a payload) but not control data. These are transportedthrough RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol). RTCP (Real-time Transport Control Protocol)
Fig 1: Protocol stack for NGN
 
APPLICATION LAYER PROTOCOLS
TCP
RTP
UDPIPv4/IPv6Network Layer Protocols
H.323H.248 SIP RTCPMedia
SCTP
Sigtran
User Adaoption
(IUA, M3UA, M2UA, M2PA SUA, V5UA)
SS7 ISUPSCCPISDNQ.931SS7MTP3V5.2
 
Technology White Paper on NGN Protocols
Switching Division, TEC Page 2 of 15
controls the delivery of packetised media streams over RTP.
2. SIGTRAN (Signalling Transport)
Sigtran refers to a protocol stack for transporting Switched Circuit Network (SCN) signallingprotocols (SS7, ISDN, V5.2 etc.) over an IP network. It encapsulates and carries SCNprotocols over IP networks. SIGTRAN is defined in IETF RFC 2719.The SIGTRAN protocol stack consists of three components, a standard IP stack, a commonsignalling transport protocol and an Adaptation layer as shown in figure 3.
Application LayersAdaptation ProtocolStandard Internet Protocol (IP)Common Signalling Transport ProtocolSIGTRANArchitecturalModel
Figure 3: SIGTRAN Protocol Stack Model
MGC/Softswitch
 
IP
 
SGSGMGMG
 
AGWAGWIPIP
AGW: Access Gateway, MG: Media Gateway, SG: Signalling gateway, MGC: Media Gateway Controller, TDM: Time Division Multiplex
Figure 2: Protocols in NGN
RTP/RTCP
 
SIGTRANSIGTRAN
H.248H.248
SS7SS7VoiceVoice
H.248H.248
TDMLocal/TransitSwitch
Analog/ ISDNAnalog/ ISDN
TDMLocal/TransitSwitchSIPSIP
SIP-I/SIP-T, H.323
MGC/Softswitch
 
IN
Switch
INAP
 
Technology White Paper on NGN Protocols
Switching Division, TEC Page 3 of 15
A standard IP stack: 
The function of IP stack is to deliver IP packets where they aresupposed to go. IP is considered as the most suitable protocol for transportation ofmessages. It provides an efficient way to transport user data.
 A common signalling transport protocol:
A protocol that supports reliable transfer of datais required for signalling transport functions. A new protocol, SCTP (Stream ControlTransmission Protocol) is designed by IETF to transport SCN signalling messages over IPnetworks. It operates on the top of IP at the same level as TCP. Although TCP providesreliable transfer of data through acknowledgement mechanism and order of transmissiondelivery through sequence mechanism, but it imposes several limitations for new emergingapplications. For example some applications require reliable transfer of data withoutsequence mechanisms and some require partial ordering of data. Moreover TCP is notappropriate for real time applications since it adds unnecessary delay.SCTP's basic service is connection oriented reliable transfer of messages between peerSCTP users. SCTP supports multi-homing and multi-streaming.
 
Multi-homing:
is the ability of an association (i.e a connection) to support multiple IPaddresses or interfaces at a given end point. In case of network failures, use of more thanone address could allow re-routing of packets, and also provide an alternate path forretransmissions. A single port number is used across the entire address list at an endpointfor a specific session.
 
Multi-streaming:
Allows for multiple virtual connections on the same physical line. Eachuser application might be assigned its own stream (virtual connection). SCTP's multi-streaming allows data to be delivered in multiple, independent streams, so that if there isdata loss in one stream, delivery will not be affected for the other streams. The SCTP usercan specify at association startup time the number of streams to be supported by theassociation.SCTP transport service can be fragmented into following functionalities:
Acknowledged error-free non-duplicated transfer of user data.
Data fragmentation to conform to discovered path MTU size.*
Sequenced delivery of user messages within multiple streams, with an option for order-of-arrival delivery of individual user messages.
Optional bundling of multiple-user messages into a single SCTP packet.
Network-level fault tolerance through supporting of multi-homing at either or both ends ofan association.
An Adaptation layer:
The function of the adaptation layer is to provide the same functions toits upper layer in IP network as provided by the corresponding layer in SCN protocol stack.Fore example M3UA provides the equivalent set of primitives at its upper layer as provided bythe MTP3 to its local MTP3 users at the SS7 signalling end point. In this way ISUP/SCCPlayers are not aware that the expected services are offered remotely from an MTP3 layer atan SG and not by a local MTP3 layer and vice versa. Protocols defined for this layer areM2PA, M2UA, M3UA, SUA, IUA and V5UA, however, exact use of Adaptation Layer Protocoldepends upon the application and implementation in the network.*
When one IP host has a large amount of data to send to another host, the data is transmitted as a series of IP datagrams. It is usually preferable that thesedatagrams be of the largest size that does not require fragmentation anywhere along the path from the source to the destination. This datagram size isreferred to as the Path MTU (PMU), and it is equal to the minimum of the MTUs of each hop in the path. When needed, SCTP fragments user messages toensure that the SCTP packet passed to the lower layer conforms to the path MTU On receipt, fragments are reassembled into complete messages beforebeing passed to the SCTP user.

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