Business Ethics, Anderson University DBA Fall 2001
2001by Karl R. Knapp
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another to questions of risk.
any of theethical issues new technologies havecreated ² especially informationtechnologies ² are related to privacy.Information technologies have also raiseddifficult ethical issues about the nature of the right to property when the property inquestion is information. Finally,biotechnology has created yet another hostof troubling ethical issues.
Moral Development & Moral Reasoning
As people mature, they change their valuesin very deep and profound ways. Theability to make reasoned moral judgmentsdevelops in identifiable stages (Kohlberg).
At these first two stages, the child is able torespond to rules and social expectations andcan apply the labels of good, bad, right and wrong. These rules, however, are seen assomething externally imposed on the self.1.
Punishment and Obedience Orientation
² At this stage, the physicalconsequences of an act wholly determine the goodness and badnessof that act.2.
Instrument and Relativity Orientation
² At this stage, right actions becomethose that can serve as instrumentsfor satisfying the child·s needs of theneeds of those for whom the childcares.
aintaining the expectations of one·s ownfamily, peer group, or nation is now seen as valuable in its own right, regardless of theconsequences.1.
Interpersonal ConcordanceOrientation ² Good behavior at thisearly conventional stage is living tothe expectations of those for whomone feel loyalty, affection, and trust,such as family and friends.2.
aw and Order Orientation
² Right and wrong at this more matureconventional stage now come to bedetermined by loyalty to one·s ownlarger nation or surrounding society.
Post Conventional, Autonomous, or Principled
At these stages, the person no longer simply accepts the values and norms of the groups to which he or she belongs. Instead the personnow tries to see situations from a point of view that impartially takes everyone·s interestsinto account.1.
ocial Contract Orientation
² At thisfirst post-conventional stage theperson becomes aware that peoplehold a variety of conflicting personal views and opinions and emphasizesfair ways of reaching consensus by agreement, contract, and dueprocess.2.
niversal Ethical PrinciplesOrientation ² At this final stage,right action comes to be defined interms of moral principles chosenbecause of their logicalcomprehensiveness, universality andconsistency.
Although people generally progressthrough the stages in the same sequence,not everyone progresses through all thestages. Kohlberg has been criticized forclaiming that the higher stages are morally preferable to the lower stages. It fails toadequately trace out the pattern of development of women. Females, Gilliganclaimed, tend to see themselves as part of a ´webµ of relationships. For women,morality is primarily a matter of ´caringµand ´being responsibleµ for others with whom one is involved in personalrelationships, and not a matter of adhering to impartial and impersonal rules.
oraldevelopment for women is marked by progress toward more adequate ways of caring and being responsible for oneself and for others. This is called the
refers to the reasoning process by which human behaviors,institutions, or policies are judged to be inaccordance with or in violation of moralstandards.
oral reasoning alwaysinvolves two essential components: