buildings and the ignition of flammable materials leadingto widespread fires. The radius over which such effectsoccur would vary depending upon the size and compositionof the object, but could easily exceed 10 km. TheTunguska event, in Siberia, of 1908 is thought to havebeen from an object about 60 m in size; it led to treesbeing flattened out to 20 km and trees 40 km away beingdamaged. At the small end of this size range, objectsabout 10 m strike the Earth about once a decade.Fortunately, only the densest objects, those containingiron, survive to the surface; most of the objects of thissize explode sufficiently high in the atmosphere thatthere are no effects (other than maybe a loud noise) onthe ground. At the larger end of this size range, it isestimated that the Earth is struck several times amillennium or about 1 impact every 100--200 yr. 100 m--1km: Objects in this size range are likely to cause severedamage over a regional area, possibly as large as acontinent (hence the name "continent-busters"). If theystrike land, they will almost certainly produce a crater,while an ocean impact will generate large tidal waves. A150 m object might produce a crater 3 km in diameter, anejecta blanket 10 km in diameter, and a zone ofdestruction extending much farther out. For a 1 kmimpactor the zone of destruction might reasonablyextend to cover countries. The death toll could be in thetens to hundreds of millions. A 1 km impactor could beginto have minor global consequences, including global coolingcaused by vast amounts of dust in the atmosphere.