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Table Of Contents

1.1 PURPOSE
1.2 ANCHORED SYSTEM SERVICE LIFE
1.3 BACKGROUND
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 GROUND ANCHORS
2.2.1General
2.2.2Types of Ground Anchors
2.2.2.2Straight Shaft Gravity-Grouted Ground Anchors
2.2.2.3Straight Shaft Pressure-Grouted Ground Anchors
2.2.2.4Post-grouted Ground Anchors
2.2.2.5Underreamed Anchors
2.2.3Tendon Materials
2.2.3.1Steel Bar and Strand Tendons
2.2.3.2Spacers and Centralizers
2.2.3.3Epoxy-Coated Bar and Epoxy-Coated Filled Strand
2.2.3.4Other Anchor Types and Tendon Materials
2.2.4Cement Grout
2.3 ANCHORED WALLS
2.3.1General
2.3.2 Soldier Beam and Lagging Wall
2.3.2.1General
2.3.2.2Soldier Beam
2.3.2.3Lagging
2.3.2.4Construction Sequence
2.3.3Continuous Walls
2.4 APPLICATIONS OF GROUND ANCHORS
2.4.1Highway Retaining Walls
2.4.2Slope and Landslide Stabilization
2.4.3Tiedown Structures
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 FIELD RECONNAISSANCE
3.3 SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION
3.3.1General
3.3.2Soil and Rock Stratigraphy
3.3.3Groundwater
3.4 LABORATORY SOIL AND ROCK TESTING
3.4.1General
3.4.2Classification and Index Properties
3.4.3Shear Strength
3.4.4Consolidation
3.4.5Electrochemical Criteria
3.5 IN SITU SOIL AND ROCK TESTING
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANCHORED SYSTEM DESIGN
4.1 GENERAL DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR ANCHORED WALLS
4.2 FAILURE MECHANISMS OF ANCHORED SYSTEMS
4.2.1General
4.2.2Failure Mechanisms of the Ground Anchor
4.2.3Failure of Soldier Beams
4.2.4.Failure of Lagging
4.3.1General
4.3.2Drained Shear Strength of Granular Soils
4.3.3Undrained Shear Strength of Normally Consolidated Clay
4.3.4Undrained Shear Strength of Overconsolidated Clay
4.3.5Drained Shear Strength of Overconsolidated Clay
4.4 EARTH PRESSURES
4.4.1General
4.4.2Active and Passive Earth Pressure
4.4.3Earth Pressure at Rest
4.4.4Influence of Movement on Earth Pressure
5.2.3Terzaghi and Peck Apparent Earth Pressure Diagrams
5.2.4Recommended Apparent Earth Pressure Diagram for Sands
5.2.6Recommended Apparent Earth Pressure Diagram for Soft to Medium Clays
5.2.7Loading Diagrams for Stratified Soil Profiles
5.2.8Sliding Wedge Analysis Method
5.2.9Water Pressures
5.2.10Earth Pressures Due To Surface Loads
5.2.10.1Uniform Surcharge Loads
5.2.10.2Point Loads, Line Loads, and Strip Loads
5.3 GROUND ANCHOR DESIGN
5.3.1Introduction
5.3.2Location of Critical Potential Failure Surface
5.3.3Calculation of Ground Anchor Loads from Apparent Earth Pressure Diagrams
5.3.4Design of the Unbonded Length
5.3.5Compression Anchors
5.3.6Design of the Anchor Bond Length
5.3.7Spacing Requirements for Ground Anchors
5.3.8Selection of Prestressing Steel Element
5.4 WALL DESIGN BASED ON LATERAL PRESSURES
5.4.1Design of Soldier Beams and Sheet-Piles
5.4.2Design of Lagging for Temporary Support
5.6.1Introduction
5.6.2Axial Load Evaluation
5.6.3 Axial Capacity Design of Driven Soldier Beams
5.6.3.1 General
5.6.3.2Effective Stress Analysis for Driven Soldier Beams
5.6.3.3Total Stress Analysis for Driven Soldier Beams in Clays
5.6.4 Axial Capacity Design Of Drilled-in Soldier Beams
5.6.4.1General
5.6.4.2Cohesionless Soils
5.6.4.3Cohesive Soils
5.6.4.4Design Issues for Concrete Backfill of Predrilled Soldier Beam Holes
5.7 ANCHORED SLOPES AND LANDSLIDE STABILIZATION SYSTEMS
5.7.1General
5.7.2Design Concepts
5.7.3Limit Equilibrium Calculations
5.7.3.1Overall Approach
5.7.3.2Method 1 Analysis
5.7.3.3Method 2 Analysis
5.7.4Modeling Lateral Wall Resistance in Limit Equilibrium Analyses
5.8 GROUND MASS STABILITY
5.8.1Introduction
5.8.2Basal Stability
5.8.2.1General
5.8.2.2Evaluation of Bottom Heave Potential in Soft to Medium Clays
5.8.3External Stability
5.8.3.1Introduction
5.8.3.2Evaluation of External Stability Using Limit Equilibrium
5.9 TIEDOWN DESIGN
5.9.1Introduction
5.9.2Uplift Capacity of Rock Tiedown Anchors
5.9.3Uplift Capacity of Soil Tiedown Anchors
5.9.4Design of Tiedown Anchors to Resist Hydrostatic Uplift
5.10SEISMIC DESIGN
5.10.1Introduction
5.10.2Internal Stability Using Pseudo-Static Theory
5.10.2.1Lateral Earth Pressure
5.10.2.2Wall Design Considerations
5.10.2.3Liquefaction
5.10.3External Stability
5.10.3.1Pseudo-Static Analysis
5.10.3.2Seismic Deformation Analysis
5.11OTHER DESIGN ISSUES
5.11.1Wall and Ground Movements
5.11.2Drainage Systems for Anchored Walls and Slopes
5.11.3Wall System Appurtenances
5.11.4Resisting the Upper Anchor Test Load
5.11.5 Anchored Walls for Fill Applications
6.2.1Mechanism of Metallic Corrosion
6.2.2Types of Corrosion for Prestressing Steel
6.3.1Requirements of Corrosion Protection Systems
6.3.2Design of Corrosion Protection Systems
6.3.2.1General
6.3.2.2Anchorage Protection
6.3.2.3Unbonded Tendon Length Protection
6.3.2.4Tendon Bond Length Protection
6.3.2.5Protection Against Stray Currents
6.4.1General
6.4.2Service Life of the Anchored Structure
6.4.3Aggressivity of the Ground Environment
6.4.4Consequences of Failure of the Anchored System
6.4.5Cost for a Higher Level of Protection
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.3 TESTING AND STRESSING EQUIPMENT
7.3.1General
7.3.2Equipment Used in Load Testing
7.3.2.1Hydraulic Jack and Pump
7.3.2.2Stressing Anchorage
7.3.2.3Pressure Gauges and Load Cells
7.3.2.4Dial Gauge to Measure Movement
7.3.2.5Jack Chair
7.4ANCHOR LOAD TESTING
7.4.1Introduction
7.4.2Performance Tests
7.4.2.1General
7.4.2.2Procedures for Performance Test
7.4.2.3Recording of Performance Test Data
7.4.2.4Analysis of Performance Test Data
7.4.3Proof Tests
7.4.3.1General
7.4.4Extended Creep Testing
7.4.4.2Procedures for Extended Creep Test
7.4.4.3Recording and Analysis of Extended Creep Test Data
7.4.5Acceptance Criteria
7.4.5.1General
7.4.5.2Creep
7.4.5.3Apparent Free Length
7.4.5.4Ground Anchor Acceptance Decision Tree
7.4.5.5Modification of Design or Installation Procedures
7.5 ANCHOR LOCK-OFF LOAD
7.6 LIFT-OFF TESTING
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 METHOD CONTRACTING APPROACH
8.2.1Introduction
8.2.2Contract Documents for Method Approach
8.3PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING APPROACH
8.3.1Introduction
8.3.2Implementing Performance Contracting Approach
8.3.2.1Pre-bid Wall Design
8.3.2.2Pre-bid Typical Section Design
8.3.2.3Post-bid Wall Design
8.3.3Contract Documents for Performance Approach
8.3.4Review and Approval
8.4CONTRACTOR DESIGN/BUILD APPROACH
8.5RECOMMENDATIONS
9.2INSPECTION ROLES UNDER CERTAIN CONTRACT APPROACHES
9.3PRE-PROJECT PREPARATION
9.4INSPECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
9.4.1Introduction
9.4.2Inspection of Wall Materials
9.4.3Inspection of Ground Anchor Materials
9.4.4Storage and Handling of Construction Materials
9.5INSPECTION OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
9.5.1Surface-Water Control
9.5.2Vertical Wall Element Installation
9.5.2.1Drilled-in Soldier Beams
9.5.2.2Driven Soldier Beams
9.5.2.3Sheet-Piles
9.5.3Excavation
9.5.4Anchor Construction
9.5.4.1Introduction
9.5.4.2Anchor Hole Drilling
9.5.4.3Tendon Insertion
9.5.4.4Anchor Grouting
9.5.4.5Anchorage Installation
9.5.5Ancillary Wall Element Installation
9.5.5.1Timber Lagging Installation
9.5.5.2Wall Drainage System Installation
9.5.5.3Horizontal Drains
9.5.5.4Permanent Facing Installation
9.6.1Monitoring of Anchor Load Tests
9.6.2Short-Term Monitoring of Wall Performance
9.6.3Long-Term Monitoring
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FHA Ground Anchors

FHA Ground Anchors

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Published by: zimm0259 on Aug 16, 2010
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