Electro chemistry is the branch of chemistry, which deals with chemical applications of electricity. The passage of electricity through a substance is called electrical conductance. Electricalconductance involves movement of electrons or ions. A substance which allows electric current to pass through it, is called a conductor. Eg: all metals fused salts, acids, alkalis. The electricalconductors are of two types.1.Metallic or Electronic conductors2.Electrolytic conductors
Metallic or Electronic conductors:
Metallic conductors conduct electricity due to the movement of electrons from one end to another end.In a solid, the electrical conduction involves the free movement of electrons in the metallic lattice,without any movement of the lattice atom; this type pf conduction is called metallic conduction. Inmetallic conductors, the electricity is carried by the electrons, the atomic nuclei remaining stationary.These conductors are further sub classified in to three types.A.Good conductor B.Semi- conductor C.Non- conductor or Insulator.
It is a substance, which conducts electricity fully and freely. Eg: Metals likeCopper, Aluminum, and Iron.
It is a substance, which partially conducts electricity. Eg: Silicon, Germanium.
Non- conductor or Insulators:
It is a substance, which does not conduct electric current i.e., whichdoes not allow the passage of current through it. Eg: Wood, Graphite.
It is a substance, which in aqueous solution of in molten state liberates ionsand allows electric current to pass through. Electrolytic conductors are further sub classified in to threetypes, depending upon the extent of dissociation at ordinary dilutions.
Strong electrolytes are completely dissociated into ions at all concentrations.Eg. NaCl, HCl, NaOH.
: Weak electrolytes dissociate only to a small extent even at very highdilutions. Eg: CH
Non-Electrolytes do not dissociate into ions even at low dilutions. Eg: Glucose,Sugar.
S.NOMetallic conductorsElectrolytic conductors
1.It involves the flow of electrons in aconductor.It involves the movement of ions in asolution.2.It does not involve any transfer of matter.It involves transfer of electrolyte in theforms of ions.3.Generally metallic conduction shows anincrease in resistance as the temperatureis raised.But the resistance of an electrolyticsolution decreases as the temperatureis raised.4.No net chemical change takes placeChemical reactions takes place at thetwo electrodes.
Conductivity of electrolytes:
Electrolytic conduction involves the transfer of electrons through themigration of positive and negative ions towards the electrodes. In an ionic solution, the cations and theanions are free to move and both can transport charge. When a current is passed through the solution,the ions carry a current. The ability of the ions in solution to carry current is conductivity. Theconductivity of a solution depends on the number of anions and cations present in it and also on howreadily these ions can move. Like electronic conductors, electrolytes also obey ohm’s law. _______________________________________________________________________________ I B.Tech Engineering Chemistry (Unit-I) Electrochemistry By… B.SRINIVAS1