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Unit 4 Water Part 2

Unit 4 Water Part 2

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Published by: engineeringchemistry on Aug 17, 2010
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IB.Tech Engineering chemistry Question with answer complete material
Engineering Chemistry (Water-IV)
prepared By B.SRINIVAS
Q.No.5: Write a brief account of Zeolite process.
Answer: Zeolites are also known as Permutits;

Zeolites are mainly 2 types:
1.Natural zeolites are non-porous, eg. Natrolite-Na2O.Al2O3.4SiO2.2H2O.
2.Synthetic Zeolites are porous and possess gel structure. Sodium zeolites are generally used for
softening of water and are simply represented asNa2Ze, where ‘Ze’ stands for insoluble zeolite. In
the process, when hard water is passed through a bed of zeolite placed in an closed cylinder, the
hardness causing ions like Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions are taken up by the zeolite. Sodium salts are
released during the reaction, as byproduct.

Process: For softening of water by zeolite process, hard water is percolated at a specified rate

through a bed of zeolite, kept in a cylinder. The hardness causing ions like Ca+2, Mg+2 are retained by the zeolite as CaZe and MgZe; while the outgoing water contains sodium salts. The various reactions taking place may be

Na2Ze + Ca(HCO3)2
CaZe + 2NaHCO3
Na2Ze + Mg(HCO3)2
MgZe + 2NaHCO3
Na2Ze + MgCl2
MgZe + 2NaCl
Na2Ze + CaCl2
CaZe + 2NaCl
Na2Ze + MgSO4
MgZe + 2Na2SO4
Na2Ze + CaSO4
CaZe + 2Na2SO4
Hence zeolite process removes the hardness of water effectively.
Regeneration: After some time, the Zeolite is completely converted into calcium and

magnesium zeolites and it ceases to soften water, i.e., it gets exhausted. At this stage, the supply of
hard water is stopped and the exhausted zeolite is reclaimed by treating the bed with a
concentrated Brine solution

CaZe + 2 NaCl
Na2Ze + CaCl2
IB.Tech Engineering chemistry Question with answer complete material
Engineering Chemistry (Water-IV)
prepared By B.SRINIVAS
MgZe + 2 NaCl
Na2Ze + MgCl2

a. It removes the hardness completely and water of about 10 ppm hardness is produced.
b. The equipment used is compact, occupying a small space.
c. No impurities are precipitated, so there is no danger of sludge formation in the treated water at

a later stage.
d. The process automatically adjusts itself for variation in hardness of incoming water.
e. It is quite clean
f. It requires less time for softening.
g. It requires less skill for maintenance as well as operation.


a. The treated water contains more sodium salts than in lime-soda process.
b. This method causes caustic embrittlement.
c. High turbidity water cannot be treated efficiently by this method.


1. If the supply of water is turbid, the suspended matter must be removed, before the water is
admitted to the zeolite bed. Otherwise the turbidity will clog the pores of zeolite bed, thereby
making it inactive.
2. If water contains large quantities of coloured ions such as Mn+2 and fe+2 they must be removed
first, because these ions produce magnesium and Ferrous zeolites. This cannot be easily
3. Mineral acids, if present in water, destroy the zeolite bed and therefore, they must be neutralized
with soda, before admitting the water to the zeolite softening plant.

Q.No.4:Write a brief account of Ion exchange process.
Answer: Ion exchange process also known as demineralization or de-ionization process. Ion-
Exchange resins are insoluble. Cross linked long chain organic polymers with a micro porous
structure, and the “functional Groups” attached to the chains are responsible for the ion-exchanging

In De-ionization process all the ions present in water are eliminated by using ion-exchange resins.
Basically resins with acidic functional group are capable of exchanging H+ ions with other cations.
Resins with functional groups are capable of exchanging OH- ions with other anions.

Resins are classified as
1. Cation Exchange Resins
2. Anion Exchange Resins
Cation Exchange Resins: These are mainly styrene divinyl benzene co-polymers,
which on sulphonation or carboxylation. These are capable of exchanging their hydrogen
ions with cations in water.
IB.Tech Engineering chemistry Question with answer complete material
Engineering Chemistry (Water-IV)
prepared By B.SRINIVAS
Anion Exchange Resins: Anion exchange resins are styrene-divinyl benzene or amine-

formaldehyde copolymers, which contains amino, quaternary ammonium or quaternary
phosphonium or tertiary sulphonium groups as an internal parts of the resin matrix. These
after treatment with dilute NaOH solution. Become capable of exchanging their OH- ions
with anions in water.

In ion-exchange process, hard water is allowed to pass through cation exchange resins, which

remove Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions and exchange equivalent amount of H+ ions. Anions exchange resins remove bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates from water exchange equivalent amount of Oh ions. Thus by passing hard water through cation hardness is observed by the following reactions.

Cation Exchange Resins
2RH+ + Ca+2 -
R2Ca+2 + 2H+
2RH+ + Mg+2
R2Mg+2 + 2H+ (RH+ = cation exchange resin)
Anion Exchange Resins
R’OH + Cl+2
R’Cl- + OH-
2R’OH- + SO4-2
R2SO4-2 -2 + 2OH-
2R’OH + CO-32
R’2CO-32 + 2OH-
(R’OH = anion exchange resin)
H- And OH-ions, thus released in water from respective cation and anion exchange columns, get
combined to produce water molecules.
H+ + OH-
The water coming out from the exchanger is ion free i.e., free from anions and cations. Thus water of
zero hardness is obtained.

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