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Tutorial 10 &11answer

Tutorial 10 &11answer

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 ABDM4044 PEOPLE and ORGANIZATION Tutorial 10 & 11 answer 09 August 2010
1
Question 1
Similarities
 
Acco
rding t
o
Kreitner&Kini
ck 
i 2010, leaders manage and managers lead thatmeans manager 
c
an als
o
be leader and the leader als
o
 
c
an be a manager t
oo.
 Differen
c
es
 
M
anagers typi
c
ally perf 
o
rm fun
c
ti
o
ns ass
oc
iated with planning, investigating,
o
rganizing and
co
ntr 
o
l while leaders deal with the interpers
o
nal aspe
c
ts
o
f amanager¶s j
o
 b
.
Leaders inspire
o
thers, pr 
o
vide em
o
ti
o
nal supp
o
rt, and try t
o
getempl
o
yees t
o
rally ar 
o
und a
co
mm
o
n g
o
al
.
 
 
Leaders als
o
pay a
ey r 
o
le in
c
reating a visi
o
n and strategi
c
plan f 
o
r an
o
rganizati
o
n
.
 
M
anagers in turn, are
c
harged with implementing the visi
o
n and strategi
c
plan
.
 
Question 2
Acco
rding t
o
Kreitner&Kini
ck 
i, Fiedler believes leader effe
c
tiveness depends
o
n anappr 
o
 priate mat
c
h between leadership style and situati
o
nal
co
ntr 
o
l
.
Leader must learn t
o
 manipulate
o
r influen
c
e the leadership situati
o
n
.
In
o
rder t
o
 
c
reate a mat
c
h between their leadership style and the am
o
unt
o
co
ntr 
o
l within the situati
o
n at hand
.
 The three dimensi
o
ns
o
f situati
o
nal
co
ntr 
o
l are defined as f 
o
ll
o
ws:1
.
 
 Leader-member relations
refle
c
t the extent t
o
whi
c
h the leader has the supp
o
rt,l
o
yalty and trust
o
f the w
o
gr 
o
up
.
This dimensi
o
n is the m
o
st imp
o
rtant
co
mp
o
nents
o
f situati
o
nal
co
ntr 
o
l
.
G
oo
d leader-member relati
o
ns suggest that the leader 
c
andepend
o
n the gr 
o
up, thus ensuring that the w
o
gr 
o
up will try t
o
meet the leader¶sg
o
als and
o
 bje
c
tive
.
 2
.
 
ask structure
is
co
n
c
erned with am
o
unt
o
f stru
c
ture
co
ntained within tas
s perf 
o
rmed by the w
o
gr 
o
up
.
F
o
r example, a managerial j
o
 b
co
ntains less stru
c
turethan that
o
f a ban
teller 
.
Be
c
ause stru
c
tural tas
s have guideline f 
o
r h
o
w the j
o
 bsh
o
uld be
co
mpleted, the leader has m
o
re
co
ntr 
o
l & influen
c
e
o
ver empl
o
yees perf 
o
rming su
c
h tas
s
.
This dimensi
o
n is the se
co
nd m
o
st imp
o
rtant
co
mp
o
nent
o
situati
o
n
co
ntr 
o
l
.
 3
.
 
 P 
osition power 
refers t
o
the degree t
o
whi
c
h the leader has f 
o
rmal p
o
wer t
o
reward, punish,
o
o
therwise
o
 btain
co
mplian
c
e fr 
o
m empl
o
yees
.
 Fr 
o
m the analysis ab
o
ve, a leader has t
o
 
c
hange his
o
r her leadership style t
o
a fix situati
o
n
.
 Situati
o
n is
co
nsisting
o
f the pe
o
 ple in the
o
rganizati
o
n and the
o
rganizati
o
nal itself, su
c
h as
c
ulture, rules and regulati
o
n,
o
rganizati
o
n stru
c
ture and p
o
li
c
ies
.
 
A
g
oo
d leader must be flexible t
o
every
occ
asi
o
n, and able t
o
s
o
lve and mange pr 
o
 blem in an
o
rganizati
o
n, hen
c
e a leader has t
o
 
c
hange his
o
r her leadership style a
cco
rding t
o
thesituati
o
n fa
c
es
.
Changing the situati
o
n is n
o
t as easy as
c
hanging the leadership styles, sin
c
e
c
hanging a situati
o
n need a l
o
t
o
f time
.
S
o
, it is better f 
o
r a leader t
o
 
c
hange his
o
r her leadership style instead
o
c
hanging the situati
o
ns
.
 
 
 ABDM4044 PEOPLE and ORGANIZATION Tutorial 10 & 11 answer 09 August 2010
2
Question 3
Transactional leadership Transformational leadership
Leaders are aware of the link betweenthe effort and reward.
Leadership is responsive and its basicorientation is dealing with present issues.
Leaders rely on standard forms of inducement, reward, punishment, andsanction to control followers.
Leaders motivate followers by settinggoals and promising rewards for desiredperformance.
Leadership depends on the leader¶spower to reinforce subordinates for their successful completion of the bargain.
Leaders arouse emotions in their followers which motivates them to actbeyond the framework of what may bedescribed as exchange relations.
Leadership is proactive and forms newexpectations.
Leaders are distinguished by their capacity to inspire and provideindividualized consideration, intellectualstimulation and idealized influence totheir followers.
Leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and stimulate followers tosolve problems.
Leaders motivate followers to work for goals that go beyond self-interest.
Leaders possess good visioning,rhetorical and management skills, todevelop strong emotional bonds withfollowers.
Question 4
Acco
rding t
o
J
o
hn Fren
c
h and Bertram Raven, p
o
wer arises fr 
o
m 5 different bases: reward p
o
wer,
co
er 
c
ive p
o
wer, legitimate p
o
wer, expert p
o
wer, and referent p
o
wer 
.
 
Reward power
- a manager has the p
o
wer t
o
the extent that he/she
o
 btain
co
mplian
c
e by pr 
o
mising
o
r granting rewards
.
These rewards
c
an range fr 
o
m m
o
netary
co
mpensati
o
n t
o
 impr 
o
ved w
o
s
c
hedules, su
c
h as m
o
ney, benefits, time
o
ff, desired gifts, pr 
o
m
o
ti
o
ns
o
in
c
reases in pay
o
r resp
o
nsibility
.
 
Coercive power
- rests in the ability
o
f a manager t
o
 
o
 btaining
co
mplian
c
e thr 
o
ugh threatened
o
r a
c
tual punishment
.
F
o
r example, a manager will fire the empl
o
yees wh
o
 
c
ann
o
t hit the saletarget
.
This
ind
o
f p
o
wer typi
c
ally leads t
o
sh
o
rt term
co
mplian
c
e, but in l
o
ng term, it will pr 
o
du
c
es unhealthy behavi
o
r and dissatisfa
c
ti
o
n in the w
o
 pla
c
e
.
 
Legitimate power
- is the f 
o
rmal auth
o
rity pe
o
 ple get fr 
o
m their p
o
siti
o
n in an
o
rganizati
o
n
.
 F
o
r example, the empl
o
yees
co
mply with the
o
rders
o
f a manager wh
o
relies
o
n legitimate p
o
wer based
o
n the p
o
siti
o
n in the
o
rganizati
o
nal hierar 
c
hy that the manager h
o
lds
.
 Legitimate p
o
wer may express itself in either p
o
sitive
o
r negative manner in managing pe
o
 ple
.
P
o
sitive legitimate p
o
wer is f 
oc
us
co
nstru
c
tively
o
n j
o
 b perf 
o
rman
c
e
.
Negativelegitimate p
o
wer tends t
o
be threatening and demanding t
o
th
o
se being influen
c
ed
.
 
Expert power
- is the p
o
wer pe
o
 ple derive fr 
o
m their s
ills,
n
o
wledge and experien
c
e
.
 Leaders wh
o
p
o
ssess this type
o
f p
o
wer have high intelligen
c
e and rely
o
n their ability t
o
  perf 
o
rm vari
o
us
o
rganizati
o
nal tas
s and fun
c
ti
o
ns
.
When s
o
me
o
ne had the expertise in an
o
rganizati
o
n pe
o
 ple are m
o
re
co
nvin
c
ed t
o
trust them and respe
c
t what they stand
o
.
 
 
 ABDM4044 PEOPLE and ORGANIZATION Tutorial 10 & 11 answer 09 August 2010
3
Referent power
- is the p
o
wer 
o
r ability
o
f pe
o
 ple t
o
attra
c
t
o
thers, t
o
build str 
o
nginterpers
o
nal relati
o
nship, t
o
persuade and build l
o
yalty
.
This is based
o
n the
c
harisma andinterpers
o
nal s
ills
o
f the p
o
wer h
o
lder 
.
F
o
r example,
c
elebrities
o
ften have these types
o
 p
o
wer in s
oc
iety
.
 
Question 5
There are 4 reas
o
ns an empl
o
yees w
o
uld want t
o
ma
e a p
oo
r impressi
o
n at w
o
, firstly, theempl
o
yee see
s t
o
av
o
ided additi
o
nal w
o
, stress, burn
o
ut
o
r an unwanted transfer 
o
 pr 
o
m
o
ti
o
n
.
Se
co
ndly, empl
o
yees see
t
o
 
o
 btain a pay raise
o
r a desired transfer, pr 
o
m
o
ti
o
n,
o
dem
o
ti
o
n
.
Third, empl
o
yee see
s t
o
get laid
o
ff, fired
o
r suspended, and perhaps als
o
t
o
 
co
lle
c
t unempl
o
yment
o
r w
o
ers¶
co
mpensati
o
n
.
Lastly, empl
o
yee see
s t
o
 
co
ntr 
o
l,manipulate
o
r intimidate
o
thers, get revenge,
o
r ma
e s
o
me
o
ne else l
ook 
bad
.
 T
o
a
cco
mplish this g
o
al, the empl
o
yee will de
c
rease their j
o
 b perf 
o
rman
c
e, by restri
c
ting pr 
o
du
c
tivity, ma
ing m
o
re mista
es than usual, l
o
wing quality, and negle
c
ting tas
s
.
 S
o
metime the empl
o
yees may als
o
n
o
t w
o
ing t
o
p
o
tential, li
e pretending ign
o
ran
c
e, andhaving unused
c
apabilities
.
 
A
n
o
ther ta
c
ti
c
s the empl
o
yees
c
an use is t
o
withdrawing, su
c
h as being tardy, ta
ingex
c
essive brea
s,
o
r fa
ing illness
.
Besides that, the empl
o
yees
c
an als
o
displaying a badattitude thr 
o
ugh
co
mplaining, getting upset and angry, a
c
ting strangely, and n
o
t getting al
o
ngwith
co
w
o
ers
.
 Lastly, the empl
o
yees may br 
o
ad
c
ast limitati
o
ns, let
co
w
o
ers
n
o
w ab
o
ut
o
ne¶s physi
c
al pr 
o
 blems and mista
es, b
o
th verbally and n
o
nverbally
.
 
Question 6
Organizati
o
nal p
o
liti
c
 
c
ann
o
t be eliminated
.
 
A
manger w
o
uld be native t
o
expe
c
t su
c
h
o
ut
co
me
.
But p
o
liti
c
al maneuvering
c
an and sh
o
uld be managed t
o
 
eep it
co
nstru
c
tive andwithin reas
o
nable b
o
unds
.
F
o
r example, the manager 
c
an s
c
reen
o
ut
o
verly p
o
liti
c
alindividuals at hiring time
.
 
A
n individual¶s degree
o
f p
o
liti
c
alness is a matter 
o
f pers
o
nalvalues, ethi
c
s, and temperament
.
When hiring pe
o
 ple, s
c
reen
o
ut th
o
se wh
o
are highly p
o
liti
c
al and sele
c
t th
o
se wh
o
are n
o
np
o
liti
c
al, sin
c
e p
o
liti
c
al is generally pay a pri
c
e f 
o
r their  behavi
o
.
 Create an
o
 pen-b
ook 
management system, publi
c
y re
co
gnize and reward pe
o
 ple wh
o
get realresults with
o
ut p
o
liti
c
al games, are als
o
a g
oo
d ways t
o
manager 
o
rganizati
o
nal p
o
liti
c
s
.
This
c
an ma
e sure every empl
o
yee
n
o
w h
o
w the business w
o
s and has a pers
o
nal line
o
f sightt
o
 
ey results with
co
rresp
o
nding measurable
o
 bje
c
tives f 
o
r individual a
cco
untability
.
 Besides that, manager 
c
an have n
o
nfinan
c
ial pe
o
 ple interpret peri
o
di
c
finan
c
ial anda
cco
unting statements f 
o
r all empl
o
yees, and establish f 
o
rmal
co
nfli
c
t res
o
luti
o
n andgrievan
c
e pr 
oc
ess, t
o
manage
o
rganizati
o
nal p
o
liti
c
s
.
 

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