VO (amplitude variation with offset)modeling contributes significantly inseismic data acquisition design, andprestack seismic data processing andinterpretation. It has become a commonpractice in prestack seismic analysis. Itis also used for verifying and develop-ing AVO theories. Conducting AVOmodeling is, by nature, an exercise ofmultidiscipline integration. It thusenhances reservoir characterization andreduces the risk in hydrocarbon explo-ration.This paper presents practicalaspects of AVO modeling with the goalof better understanding and more effec-tively using AVO modeling in bothprestack data processing and interpre-tation. Numerous examples demon-strate the applications of AVO modeling.We present approaches for generating,processing, and analyzing AVO syn-thetic data, and include the commonlyused methodologies of single-interfacemodeling, single-gather modeling, 2Dstratigraphic modeling, and 2D full-wave elastic-equation modeling. Weillustrate the applications of these meth-ods to P-wave data, converted-wavedata, and elastic rock property inver-sion. In addition, we discuss some com-monly encountered issues such astuning and the effects of noise contam-ination in AVO processing and analy-sis. Finally, we demonstrate the role ofAVO modeling in calibrating prestackseismic processing and in assisting datainterpretation.
Fundamentals in AVO modeling.
Seismic rock properties are directlyresponsible for seismic wave propaga-tion and seismic responses. They may be catalogued as basic rock seismicproperties (P- and S-wave velocities anddensity, and
ratio and Poisson’sratio), impedances, modulus rock prop-erties (bulk modulus K, shear modulus
, Lamé’s constant
), and anisotropicrock properties.Often, rock properties and corre-sponding AVO responses can be dis-cerned from well-log data. Todemonstrate this, various rock proper-ties were calculated using the log datafrom the Western Canadian SedimentaryBasin (WCSB) and are displayed in theplots in Figure 1, with the empirical rela-tionships for shale (solid black line),
Practical aspects of AVO modeling
,Paradigm Geophysical, Calgary, Canada J
, Veritas, Calgary, Canada,Y
,Arcis Corporation, Calgary, Canada
Seismic rock properties derived from a set of dipole sonic logs from the Western CanadianSedimentary Basin. Data points of the gas sand, oil-saturated sand, and overlying and underlyingshale are highlighted in red, green, black, and pink squares, respectively. Notice that rock propertiesin different domains have different sensitivity responding to fluid. The contrast between gas sandand overlying shale indicates a class 1 AVO response. These crossplots can be used as templates tointerpret inverted elastic rock properties. The lines in black, blue, and red are the empirical relation-ships for shale, brine-saturated sand, and gas-charged clean sand.
Petrophysical analysis of a well from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Shalevolume has direct effects on water saturation and porosity, which consequently results in changesin elastic seismic rock properties and seismic responses.