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AVO_fatti

AVO_fatti

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08/27/2010

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A
VO (amplitude variation with offset)modeling contributes significantly inseismic data acquisition design, andprestack seismic data processing andinterpretation. It has become a commonpractice in prestack seismic analysis. Itis also used for verifying and develop-ing AVO theories. Conducting AVOmodeling is, by nature, an exercise ofmultidiscipline integration. It thusenhances reservoir characterization andreduces the risk in hydrocarbon explo-ration.This paper presents practicalaspects of AVO modeling with the goalof better understanding and more effec-tively using AVO modeling in bothprestack data processing and interpre-tation. Numerous examples demon-strate the applications of AVO modeling.We present approaches for generating,processing, and analyzing AVO syn-thetic data, and include the commonlyused methodologies of single-interfacemodeling, single-gather modeling, 2Dstratigraphic modeling, and 2D full-wave elastic-equation modeling. Weillustrate the applications of these meth-ods to P-wave data, converted-wavedata, and elastic rock property inver-sion. In addition, we discuss some com-monly encountered issues such astuning and the effects of noise contam-ination in AVO processing and analy-sis. Finally, we demonstrate the role ofAVO modeling in calibrating prestackseismic processing and in assisting datainterpretation.
Fundamentals in AVO modeling.
Seismic rock properties are directlyresponsible for seismic wave propaga-tion and seismic responses. They may be catalogued as basic rock seismicproperties (P- and S-wave velocities anddensity, and
P
 /V 
S
ratio and Poisson’sratio), impedances, modulus rock prop-erties (bulk modulus K, shear modulus
 µ
, Lamé’s constant
 λ
), and anisotropicrock properties.Often, rock properties and corre-sponding AVO responses can be dis-cerned from well-log data. Todemonstrate this, various rock proper-ties were calculated using the log datafrom the Western Canadian SedimentaryBasin (WCSB) and are displayed in theplots in Figure 1, with the empirical rela-tionships for shale (solid black line),
Practical aspects of AVO modeling 
ONGYI 
L
,Paradigm Geophysical, Calgary, Canada 
ONATHAN 
OWNTON 
, Veritas, Calgary, Canada,
ONG 
,Arcis Corporation, Calgary, Canada 
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 Figure 1.
Seismic rock properties derived from a set of dipole sonic logs from the Western CanadianSedimentary Basin. Data points of the gas sand, oil-saturated sand, and overlying and underlyingshale are highlighted in red, green, black, and pink squares, respectively. Notice that rock propertiesin different domains have different sensitivity responding to fluid. The contrast between gas sandand overlying shale indicates a class 1 AVO response. These crossplots can be used as templates tointerpret inverted elastic rock properties. The lines in black, blue, and red are the empirical relation-ships for shale, brine-saturated sand, and gas-charged clean sand.
 Figure 2.
Petrophysical analysis of a well from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Shalevolume has direct effects on water saturation and porosity, which consequently results in changesin elastic seismic rock properties and seismic responses.
 
 brine-saturated sand (solid blue line), and gas-charged cleansand (solid red line) overlain. Figure 1 demonstrates that thevelocities and impedances do not provide sufficient dis-crimination as to whether the reservoir is gas-charged.However, the
P
 /V 
S
ratio, Poisson’s ratio,
 λρ
, and
 λµ
ratio do.Further, as expected, the data points of the oil-saturated sand(green squares) fall on the empirical line for the brine-satu-rated sand. In comparison with the gas sand, the lower imped-ance of the oil-saturated sand (red squares) indicates that ithas higher porosity. The lithology contrast leads one to expecta class 1 AVO anomaly at the top of the gas sand because theimpedance of the gas sand is significantly higher than thatof the shale above it (black squares).Petrophysical analysis is an important aspect in AVOmodeling because the information can be used to assessreservoir conditions. The relationships between petrophys-ical and seismic rock properties can also be established andused in reservoir characterization.The petrophysical rock propertiesthat directly relate to seismic rockproperties are volume fractions ofmineralogies, porosity, and water sat-uration (
S
W
). Fluid type, gas/oil ratio(GOR), oil and gas gravity (in API),and brine salinity (in ppm) formanother set of important petrophysi-cal properties. Fluid properties can be calculated based on derived or in-situ measured pressure (
P
) and tem-perature (
). Predicting seismic rockproperties, especially shear-wavevelocity, is important in rock physicsanalysis. The steps to accomplish thisusually include determining in-situconditions, calculating fluid proper-ties, solid properties, and finally cal-culating seismic rock properties. Thelink between seismic rock properties(bulk modulus and shear modulus)and petrophysical rock properties(porosity, fluid type, water saturation,and mineral composition) can be seenin these Gassmann equations:(1)(2)where
K
dry
= effective bulk modulusof the dry rock;
K
sat
= effective bulkmodulus of the rock with pore fluid;
K
0
= bulk modulus of mineral mate-rial making up the rock;
K
fl
= effec-tive bulk modulus of the pore fluid;
 φ
= porosity;
 µ
dry
= effective shearmodulus of the dry rock; and
 µ
sat
=effective shear modulus of the rockwith pore fluid. In Equation 1,
K
0
,
φ
,and
K
fl
are often calculated usingpetrophysical logs. Notice thatEquation 2 indicates that fluid typeand saturation do not affect shearmodulus of rock.Numerous empirical relationships for seismic rock prop-erties, especially for shear sonic prediction, have been pub-lished. They are useful when either petrophysical propertiesare not available or rock physics theories do not address thecomplexity of rock properties. Commonly used empiricalrelationships are the P- and S-velocity linear relation forwater-saturated clastics, also called the mudrock line(Castagna et al., 1985); the velocity-porosity-clay relation(Han, 1986); the critical porosity model for
K
dry
(Nur et al.,1995); the Greenberg-Castagna relation for mixed lithologies(Greenberg and Castagna, 1992); the velocity relation forclay-sand mixtures (Xu and White, 1996); and the empiri-cal velocity relations for carbonates (e.g., Li and Downton,2000). Often used petrophysical empirical relations are thedensity-velocity relation (Gardner et al., 1974); the sonicand porosity relation (Wyllie et al., 1956); and the resistiv-ity-velocity relation (e.g., Faust, 1953). While the above
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empirical relationships are useful, the empirical relationshipsderived locally are strongly recommended. Further, cali- bration using available well logs may improve rock prop-erty predictions.Figure 2 shows a set of petrophysical log curves from aWCSB well. Shale volume (
sh
), effective porosity (
 φ
E
), andwater saturation (
S
W
) were derivedfrom resistivity, gamma ray (GR),density porosity, neutron porosity,and local petrophysical parameters.The observations from this petro-physical evaluation include:(1)water saturation is proportional to
sh
(2)gas saturation increases withdecreasing
sh
(3)porosity increases with decreas-ing
sh
Figure 3, based on this petro-physical analysis, shows how the vol-ume of clay influences seismic rockproperties. It is notable that cleansand is most sensitive to gas satura-tion since the distance between theclean sand data points and the empir-ical lines is greatest. The sensitivity ordistance decreases with increasingshale volume. Further, similar to whatis shown in Figure 1, the elastic rockproperties of the oil-saturated sandagain fall on the wet-sand empiricallines. This example shows that petro-physical analysis is useful for under-standing the relationship betweenreservoir quality and seismic rockproperties and, consequently, seismicresponses.
AVO equations and attributes.
Toillustrate the relationship betweenrock physical properties and seismicreflections, we will use a two-layerinterface with incident P-waves,reflected and transmitted P-waves,and converted S-waves as shown inFigure 4. The rock properties in thelayers are P- and S-wave velocities,density, impedances, bulk modulus,shear modulus, Lamé’s parameter,and the attenuation coefficient Q. Theanisotropic properties are P- and S-wave velocity anisotropic parameters
ε
,
λ
, and
δ
(Thomsen, 1986). The rockproperties listed above are of greatinterest in prestack seismic inversion.In AVO modeling, they are oftenobtained or derived from well-logdata.Two main steps of AVO modelingare to generate synthetic gathers,CMPgathers or common-image gath-ers (CIG), by using the exact solutionand then to extract AVO attributes byusing approximate equations. AVOexact solutions are often generated by using the Zoeppritz equations with ray tracing and aplane-wave assumption, or by using the full wave elasticequation with a finite-difference method.Aki and Richards (1980) simplified the Zoeppritz equa-tions into a form that can be used to solve for meaningfulreflectivities. The difference between the Zoeppritz exact
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