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bahan 5

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Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat Vol. 22, No. 2, Juni 2006 halaman 75-81
PENINGKATAN PENANGGULANGAN PENYAKITDEMAM BERDARAH
DENGUE 
BERBASIS MASYARAKATDENGAN PENYULUHAN KESEHATAN
Paiman Soeparmanto, Setia PranataPusat
Penelitian
dan Pengembangan Sistem dan Kebijakan Kesehatan.Badan Litbang Kesehatan, Departemen Kesehatan RI.Surabaya
ABSTRACT
Backgrounds: Dengue Disease Fever (DDF) causes of Dengue Virus andcontagious mosquito bite AedesAegypti Overcoming problem expanding of Dengue Disease Fever have beendone through direct healtheducation by health worker and through media printing and electronic, but stillobtained more occurrence Denguedisease especially in the big towns. Therefore needed health educationdevelopment which can was done byselfs community. From this background the objective of research is learningimprovement of the prevention toDDF with health education on the community based.Methods' Research design is quasi - experimental design pre and post test usecontrol group. Intervence s^"Strain the health cadres, Chief 
Rukun Tetangga
(RT) and Chief 
Rukun Warga-)
to implementahon hea, heducation of DDF. Every family was given leaflet and sticker as overcoming DDFbriefing. Data collecting wasconducted with closed questionnaire and data analyses are T-Test and Chisquare. This considering obtaineddata having the character of interval and categories.Results- Result of research that mostly respondent old age than 41 year, mosthave level education SLTP aboveand it's most merchant 20% and the other is farmer. PNS/ABRI, and privatesector officer. Age group, andeducation level respondent not significant different between study and controlarea, and the work s respondentsignificant different between the study and control area.To get information about Dengue Disease directly, most from neighbor what isobtained by |om to fee and partly,minimize through health worker, and
urban
leader formal
{Kelurahan
Pamong),Health Cadre and Chief o RT/RW.Most media which a lot of weared obtaining dengue disease information byrespondent through TV 60 /., at thestudy and control area. While using leaflet relative minimize after healtheducation and also before interventionespecially in the study area. . -c
1
 
The knowledge level in the pre research at the study and the control area notsignificant different (p>0 05)namely mean value 16 (range 0-100), but in the post research the knowledgelevel more high in study area thanin the control area The pre research the behaviors of prevention of Denguediseases not significant differentbetween the study and control area (p>0.05). mean value 23 in the study and 24in control area. At the postresearch prevention to behavior DDF between study and control area also notsignificant different p>0,05).Conclusion' The level of knowledge and behavior prevention DDF increasing inthe study and control in pre andpost intervention. But mean value increasing of knowledge in study area morehigh was compared with in thecontrol area And mean value the increasing of behavior to overcoming DDF butnot significant different beweenstudy and control area pre and post intervention. This situation causes healtheducation on community basednot yet were conducted by Health Cadre. Chief RT/RW,
Kelurahan
Pamong, andleaflet also sticker not yet waslearned by family especially in study area.
Keywords:
dengue disease fever; health education
PENDAHULUAN
Penyakit Demam Berdarah
Dengue
(DBD)disebabkan oleh virus
dengue
dan ditularkan melaluigigitan
nyamuk
Aedes Aegypti. Baik virus penyebabmaupun
nyamuk
penularnya tersebar luas di daerahpelosok tanah air. Obat untuk pencegahan viruspenyakit demam berdarah belum ada, sehingga satu-satunya cara pencegahan dengan memberantas
nyamuk
Aedes Aegypti sebagai pembawa virusnya.Strategi pemberantasan DBD lebih ditekankanpada upaya preventif yaitu melaksanakan penyem-protan massal sebelum musim penularan penyakitdi desa/kalurahan endemis DBD, yang merupakanpusat penyebaran ke wilayah lainnya.' Strategi ini juga diperkuat dengan upaya pemberantasan sarang
nyamuk
yaitu dengan penguburan barang-barangbekas, penutupan dan pembakaran, pemeriksaan jentik
nyamuk
dan penyuluhan kepada masyarakatuntuk melaksakan kegiatan tersebut. Kegiatanpenyuluhan dan pelaksanaan pembasmian jentik
nyamuk
Aedes Aegypti oleh masyarakat,khususnya oleh keluarga-keluarga belum kontinyu.Salah satu faktor penyebabnya karena keter-batasan petugas-petugas kesehatan untuk melak-
2
 
sanakan penyuluhan secara berkesinambungan danBerira
Kedokteran Masyarakat, Vol. 22, No. 2, Juni 2006 
• 75
Page 2
Raiman Soeparmanlo, dkk.:
Peningkatan Penanggulangan Penyakit DemamBerdarah
Dengue
kepedulian masyarakat terhadap hal ini perluditingkatkan, sehingga ada kecenderunganterjadinya wabah penyakit DBD secara tiba-tiba didaerah-daerah.Hasil survei vektor DBD yang dilakukan disembilan wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia pada 1997menunjukkan bahwa jentik Aedes Aegypti terdapatsatu di antara tiga rumah tangga penduduk. Tempatperindukan
nyamuk
Aedes Aegypti yang palingpotensial adalah tempat-tempat penampungan air,bak mandi, tempayan, dan drum-drum minyak tanah.Dari hasil survei tersebut diketahui bahwapengetahuan masyarakat
tentang
DBD masihkurang.2 Hal Ini juga ditemukan
penelitian
yangdilakukan di Pontianak bahwa pengetahuan olehresponden
penelitian
 
tentang
: gejala, tempatpenyakit DBD perkembangbiakan
nyamuk
dan carapemberantasannya dalam tingkatan: kurang 46%,cukup 40%, dan baik 14%.3 Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut maka dalam
penelitian
inidirumuskan masalah
penelitian
: bagaimanameningkatkan partisipasi masyarakat dalammelakukan pembasmian sarang-sarang
nyamuk
Aedes Aegypti secara kontinuitas, sebagai usahamencegah berkembangnya penyakit DBD?
Penelitian
ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkanupaya pencegahan berkembangnya penyakit DBDberbasis pada masyarakat dengan penyuluhankesehatan kepada masyarakat. Tujuan khusus dari
penelitian
ini untuk menganalisis media Informasiyang digunakan dalam memperoleh informasi ten-tang cara menanggulangi berkembangnya penyakitDBD. Menganalisis perubahan pengetahuan dankontinuitas perilaku keluarga dalam usaha mem-basmi berkembangnya
nyamuk
Aedes Aegyptidalam lingkungan keluarga dan tempat-tempat umumtertentu.
BAHAN DAN CARA PENELITIANRancangan Penelitian
Rancangan
penelitian
menggunakan rancang-an kelompok quasi experimental test awal dan akhir 
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