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Labour Market Condition1

Labour Market Condition1

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Published by visky

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Published by: visky on Jun 25, 2008
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10/27/2012

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LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONSIntroduction to the topic
The most broadly defined labor market consists of all of the buyers andsellers of labor services, and consists of the global labor market.Narrower labor markets are defined by limiting the industries, occupations,or the geographical area covered. Even at the national level, mostresearchers and analysts would focus on a few industries or occupations indescribing labor market conditions or trends. Since labor market conditionsand trends often vary among the regions and states, labor market arecommonly defined by limiting the geographical coverage to a region, state, oroftentimes a sub-state area.
LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS
When we use the words labour market conditions, we are referring to the inand out flow of labour, the level of quality of that labour force, thecomposition of the market with respect to gender, ethnicity, expertise andage groups also covers the issues of exploitation of labour by the power fullindustrialist as well as the role of power hungry labour leaders. Labourmarket condition also encircles the activities termed as labour management,the situation regarding quality of work life. It also covers the scenarioarising due to the change in political environment of the world. In general wecan say that it is an arena where human resource is the key player.In this study we will focus on the condition of work force with a particularreference to Pakistan research has provide that the employers change theirpolicies in response to changes in market.
Important sub-topicsLABOUR MARKET INDICATORS
On the basis of International Labour Organization Data
Unemployment rate in
 
2000:
7.8%
(I.L.O data) 
 
Active population:
 
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 YearTotalPopulationActivepopulationActivity rate
2002 145.96 million 41.54 million 28.46%
Employment by sector:
 
 YearAgricultureIndustryServices
2002 47.3% 17.1% 35.6%
Employment contracts
Employment contracts are regulated by collective agreements. Individualnegotiations and law complement them.The terms of the employment contracts are rather rigid. The limits fordismissal and the conditions for hiring are flexible.
SalariesMonthly national minimum wage on the 01/01/03 :
US$ 42 (PKR 2,500)for unskilled workers
Average wage per employee in manufacturing industry in 2000 :
2,981rupees by month
( I.L.O data) 
 
ContributionsEmployers' contribution :
9 %.
Employees' contribution :
8 %.
Duration of work timeLegal weekly duration :
48 hours
Retirement age :
65
2. G ROWTH OF POPULATION AND LABOUR FORCE
The labour force (around 42 million in 2002) is not a very large proportion ofthe population (146 million in 2002) in Pakistan. It is estimated to be around28-29 per cent. Population growth had been increasing over the years, up toand including 1970s. Although the last census was carried out in 1980,
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projections on the population growth rate suggest that it is likely to havefallen and has probably stabilized now to just under 3 per cent.Labour force growth rates on the other hand were
higher 
 
than that ofpopulation in 1970s (figure 1.1) but have been generally
lower after the 1970s 
. Although the labour force survey figures for the 1990s can also beinterpreted to suggest a
decline 
 
in labour force growth on trend, there areproblems in comparing the labour force trends before and after 1990-91.There is however a clear decline between the two definitionaly comparableperiods of the 1970s and 1980s.This means that labour force growth, which is significantly lower thanpopulation growth, is likely to be falling while the growth of population islikely to be stabilizing.
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